Topical keratolytics, topical retinoids, topical steroids, topical calcipotriol, cryosurgery, phototherapy, and anthralin
have been used to treat PEODDN unsuccessfully.
Topical immunotherapy or anthralin
have been used, essentially trying to get an inflammatory response in the scalp that alters the local immune environment, but these therapies have lots of issues with side effects and potential toxic effects.
A large variety of therapeutic modalities have been suggested for the treatment of AA, which include topical steroids, contact sensitizers such as dinitrochlorobenzene, squaric acid dibutylester and diphenylcyclopropenone or a tacrolimus, anthralin
, nitrogen mustard or minoxidil.
and bendiocarb are expected to have greater dermal than oral absorption.
The topical agents include corticosteroids, minoxidil, psoralen therapy with ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) and anthralin
Local treatment of psoriasis includes local corticosteroid therapy, vitamin D analogues, anthralin
preparations, tar and topical retinoids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratinolytics and emollients [28, 29].
In general, initial treatment of psoriasis involves application of a topical medicine, which could be a steroid preparation, retinoid (synthetic vitamin A), dithranol, calcipotriol (a vitamin D analog), anthralin
, or coal tar.
Schimdt KN et al: Anti-psoriatic drug anthralin
activates transcription factor NF-kB in murine keratinocytes.
Treatments can be topical--creams and ointments such as corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues, anthralin
, retinoids, calcineurin inhibitors, salicyclic acid, coal tar (the oldest treatment for psoriasis) and moisturizers which can help alleviate skin dryness.
UVB light therapy, sunlight, oral and topical vitamin A derivatives, coal tar, salicylic acid, hydroxyurea (which can be combined with light therapy), anthralin
and topical vitamin D derivatives often help.
Topical treatments Topical steroids Intralesional steroid injections Topical contact sensitizers Anthralin
Minoxidil Topical retinoids Tacrolimus Systemic treatments Systemic corticosteroids Sulfasalazine Azathioprine Methotrexate Oral zinc sulphate Photo-and photochemotherapy PUVA NBUVB Excimer laser Miscellaneous and Non-pharmacological treatment Dermatography, wigs Hypnotherapy etc
Broadband UVB (BB-UVB) was first used during the 1950s, with crude tar or anthralin
, but is rarely used today.