anthropometry


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anthropometry

(ănthrəpŏm`ətrē), technique of measuring the human body in terms of dimensions, proportions, and ratios such as those provided by the cephalic indexcephalic index
[Gr. kephale=head], ratio of the breadth of the head to its length. Expressed as a percental number, it provides the simplest description of the geometric relation of two dimensions.
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. Once the standard approach to racial classification and comparing humans to other primates, the technique is now used for deciding the range of clothing sizes to be manufactured and determining the nutritional status of people.

Bibliography

See A. Montagu, A Handbook of Anthropometry (1960); R. McCammon, Human Growth and Development (1970).

Anthropometry

 

a combination of methodological procedures in anthropological research, consisting of the measurement and description (anthroposcopy) of the entire human body and its individual parts, thereby yielding a quantitative index of their variability.

The comprehensive nature of anthropometric research permits the evaluation and comparison of feature variability among different racial, age, professional, and sexual groups based on measurements from a large number of individuals. The origin of anthropometry as a scientific method dates to the 19th century and is associated with the well-known French anthropologist P. Broca. Significant contributions to its further development were made by foreign (R. Martin and others) and Soviet anthropologists (V. V. Bunak, A. I. Iarkho, and others). Features are distinguished by measurements and by description. The former are determined with the aid of anthropological instruments (anthropometers, spreading and sliding calipers, tapes, and so forth). A measurement is taken between precisely fixed anthropometric points which represent parts of the external body structure that are relatively

easily accessible for observation. Total dimensions of the body (body length, mass, and chest circumference) and partial dimensions (width of the foot, length of the wrist, and so forth) are selected. Determination of descriptive features (shapes of body parts, facial features, skin pigmentation, hair and eye coloring, hair structure, and so forth) is done with the aid of scales, molds, and schematic drawings constructed on the basis of precisely delimited criteria. For example, V. V. Bunak’s eye-color scale allows for 12 variations of iris pigmentation, and the Fisher-Sailer hair-color scale differentiates 40 shades. The methods of anthropological photography find wide application in anthropometry.

There is a characteristic tendency in anthropometry to replace descriptive features with more precise measurements and to introduce modern methods of analysis (X rays, ultrasonics, and labeled compounds). The selection of anthropometric methods, points, and features is dictated by the aims of the specific anthropological study. In race studies and ethnic anthropology the head, face, cranium, and body length are measured, and color scales are used for the eyes, skin, hair, and so forth, in order to differentiate racial types. In human morphology, and particularly in the study of physical development, the characteristics of bulk, body length (growth), and other measures of length, diameter, and circumference are taken into consideration. On the basis of these measurements, scales are constructed that enable one to determine the degree of physical development in individuals and in different population groups.

The data gathered in the process of an anthropometric investigation are subject to statistical variation (biometric) analysis and are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and diagrams. The standardization of articles for mass production (for example, clothing and footwear) and the efficient layout of work spaces are also based on anthropometric data. In addition, anthropometric data are used in criminal law for the description and identification of criminals.

REFERENCE

Bunak, V. V. Antropometriia: Prakticheskii kurs. Moscow, 1941.

V. P. CHTETSOV

anthropometry

[‚an·thrə′päm·ə·trē]
(anthropology)
Description of the physical variation in humankind by measurement; a basic technique of physical anthropology.
References in periodicals archive ?
Anthropometry, Physique, Body Composition and Maturity.
There are several techniques to assess proportions, size and body composition, among them anthropometry. The best interpretation will depend of valid reference values for age range of the study population.
Anthropometry provides the single most portable universally applicable, inexpensive and non-invasive technique for assessing the size proportion, composition of human body.
Assessment of under nutrition of Bangladeshi adults using anthropometry: Can body mass index be replaced by mid-upper-arm-circumference?
As per our knowledge, this is the prime research in Pakistan to examine the effect of LGI diet on anthropometry measurements among obese post-partum women.
The limitations of this study included the use of self-reported instruments and the cross-sectional study design; however, the findings of this study are important in understanding the factors associated with anthropometry in rural-dwelling African women.
In such cases, a combination of biochemical and clinical factors can be used if SGA and anthropometry are inconclusive.5 Various biochemical parameters can be used to assess nutritional status including albumin, creatinine, lipid profile, hemoglobin, ferritin and electrolytes in cirrhosis.
Agha, "School furniture match to students' anthropometry in the Gaza Strip," Ergonomics, vol.
Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee.
Each driver has a different anthropometry that the seat and restraint system must accommodate to keep the driver safe.
[15] Research by Bernal-Orozco et al suggest that anthropometry equations derived in one setting do not suit the elderly in another setting.
The book begins with material on anthropometry, barrier-free accessibility, and spatial perception.