Such pathogens fall into the group of anthroponoses
(i.e., those in which humans are the principal vertebrate host).
(1) Significant interchange of the etiological agents from anthroponoses
to zoonoses is observed in contemporary China, as the authors pointed the economic development and urbanization of cities as the main reason for that.
The term reverse zoonoses or anthroponoses
refer to diseases naturally transmitted from humans to animals.
The incidence data most useful in signaling underlying ecosystem processes relate to vector-mediated diseases (e.g., arboviral illnesses), direct zoonoses (e.g., hantaviruses), and infections that appear to transcend simple transmission categories [e.g., viruses that were zoonotic but "transformed" to direct anthroponoses
, such as SARS (severe acute respiratory virus) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)].
The close contact between baboons and humans results in a high potential for the transmission of infectious diseases (2), from baboons to humans (zoonoses) and from humans to baboons (anthroponoses).
The results of this study suggest that baboons on the Cape Peninsula pose a low but potential risk for transmitting zoonoses and that they might be at risk from anthroponoses. The findings should not be interpreted as definitively showing baboon exposure to human viruses because the serologic tests did not distinguish between human and baboon variants of the viruses and some cross-reactivity may have occurred.
The simian malarias: zoonoses, anthroponoses
, or both?
albertii can be transmitted from animals to humans is unknown, although the eae, cdtB, MLST, and PFGE data indicating that the bird isolates cluster among isolates from humans suggest that zoonoses or anthroponoses
Human communicable diseases can be classified according to the source of infection as anthroponoses (when the source is an infectious human; interhuman transfer is typical), zoonoses (the source is an infectious animal; interhuman transfer is uncommon), and sapronoses (the source is an abiotic substrate, nonliving environment; interhuman transfer is exceptional).
Anthroponoses (Greek "anthropos" = man, "nosos" = disease) are diseases transmissible from human to human.
While anthroponoses and zoonoses are usually the domains for professional activities of human and veterinary microbiologists, respectively, sapronoses may be the domain for environmental microbiologists.