nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

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nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug,

a drug that suppresses inflammation in a manner similar to steroidssteroids,
class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals.
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, but without the side effects of steroids; commonly referred to by the acronym NSAID (ĕn`sĕd). Also effective in alleviating pain and fever, NSAIDs are commonly used to treat the symptoms of arthritis, gout, bursitis, painful menstruation, and headache. They act by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and other compounds that are involved in the inflammatory process.

Aspirin is technically an NSAID, but the term is often used to refer to nonaspirin products. The first nonaspirin NSAIDs were introduced in 1964. Common NSAID products include diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren), indomethacin (Indocin), ketorolac (Acular, Toradol), and piroxicam (Feldene). Ibuprofenibuprofen
, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that reduces pain, fever, and inflammation. Along with naproxen and ketoprofen, ibuprofen belongs to the propionic acid class of NSAIDs. It was first made available in 1967.
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, naproxennaproxen
and naproxen sodium,
potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) used to alleviate the minor pain of arthritis, menstruation, headaches, and the like, and to reduce fever.
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, and ketoprofenketoprofen
, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and fever-reducing effects, used to relieve the symptoms of headaches, arthritis, and painful menstruation.
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 are available as over-the-counter drugs in the United States. The cox-2 inhibitors, such as celecoxib (Celebrex), selectively inhibit clooxygenase-2 (cox-2), an enzyme that causes pain and inflammation in arthritic joints, but do not interfere with cox-1, which protects the stomach and intestinal lining from ulceration. Very common drugs, NSAIDs are taken daily by an estimated 3 million Americans.

Although they are often considered easier to tolerate than aspirin, and most do not have as strong an anticlotting effect as aspirin, NSAIDS can have serious side effects, particularly gastrointestinal ulcers and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding and perforation in those who take the drugs on a regular basis. NSAID-related gastropathy results in more than 2,000 deaths in the United States each year.

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References in periodicals archive ?
The demonstration of potent anti-inflammatory activity in the mouse model of DED and the results exhibiting absence of local irritation in a rabbit model are important basis for initiation of the upcoming IND-enabling studies, and subsequently to IND submission for DED treatment.
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Science doesn't support popular claims that an anti-inflammatory diet exists, especially where entire food categories are eliminated such as dairy, legumes, nightshades (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes and eggplants) and grains under the premise they are inflammatory as there is no exponent to measure inflammation.
According to Ali Webster, associate director of nutrition communications at the International Food Information Council Foundation, anti-inflammatory diet is a kind of diet that focuses on food that is high in nutrients, especially antioxidants and that have been tied with lowering markers of inflammation within the body.
The data of the anti-inflammatory response were analyzed statistically with one- and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); the statistical analysis of cytokine levels was conducted with one-way ANOVA.
The conventional therapy used for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatoid disorders includes non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.
That anti-inflammatory shift was sustained for at least four hours in humans and three days in rats, the study said.
Recent related research shows that neuroinflammation soon after birth can impair learning and memory later in life and that anti-inflammatory treatment has the power to prevent those impairments.
Hence, this current review aims to disseminate detailed information on the anti-inflammatory potential of Malaysian medicinal plants, focusing on the bioactive phytochemicals, and mechanisms of action against inflammation in both in vitro and in vivo studies.
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