anticoagulant

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anticoagulant

(ăn'tēkōăg`yələnt), any of several substances that inhibit blood clot formation (see blood clottingblood clotting,
process by which the blood coagulates to form solid masses, or clots. In minor injuries, small oval bodies called platelets, or thrombocytes, tend to collect and form plugs in blood vessel openings.
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). Some anticoagulants, such as the coumarin derivatives bishydroxycoumarin (Dicumarol) and warfarin (Coumadin) inhibit synthesis of prothrombin, a clot-forming substance, and other clotting factors. The coumarin derivatives compete with vitamin K, which is a necessary substance in prothrombin formation (see vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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). They are only effective after the body's existing supply of prothrombin is depleted. Another anticoagulant, heparin, is a polysaccharide (see carbohydratecarbohydrate,
any member of a large class of chemical compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and related compounds. These compounds are produced naturally by green plants from carbon dioxide and water (see photosynthesis).
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) found naturally in many cells. It acts in several ways: by preventing prothrombin formation; by preventing formation of fibrin, another clotting substance; and by decreasing the availability of a third clotting factor, thrombin. Heparin is obtained by extracting it from animal tissues. Anticoagulants are used to treat blood clots, which appear especially frequently in veins of the legs and pelvis in bedridden patients. Therapy helps to reduce the risk of clots reaching the lung, heart, or other organs. Heparin causes an instantaneous increase in blood-clotting time, and its effect lasts several hours.

anticoagulant

[¦an·tē‚kō′ag·yə·lənt]
(pharmacology)
An agent, such as sodium citrate, that prevents coagulation of a colloid, especially blood.

anticoagulant

1. acting to prevent or impair coagulation, esp of blood
2. an agent, such as warfarin, that prevents or impairs coagulation
References in periodicals archive ?
Evaluation of dental extractions, suturing and INR on postoperative bleeding of patients maintained on oral anticoagulant therapy.
Anticoagulant therapy with bed rest and scrotal support can be used clinically.
Currently there is no standardized approach to the management of these patients, (11) but it should be noted that suspension or reduction of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) leaves them exposed, risking the appearance of thromboembolic events.
The biggest number of our cases were treated with antiplatelet therapy for atrial fibrillation (88 cases, 47, 31 %), followed by anticoagulant therapy (77 cases, 41,4 %), antiplatelet + anticoagulant therapy (14 cases, 7,53 %), dual antiplatelet therapy (5 cases, 2,69 %), dual antiplatelet + anticoagulant therapy (2 cases, 1,07 %).
In this study, 50 heart patients following an anticoagulant therapy were treated with leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin clots placed into post-extraction sockets.
Toyonaga J, Tsuruya K, Masutani K, et al: Hemorrhagic shock and obstructive uropathy due to a large rectus sheath hematoma in a patient on anticoagulant therapy.
Intramural hematoma of the small intestine as a complication of anticoagulant therapy.
The seven measures assessed included: three types of heart failure medications, including beta blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers; the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy, a device that helps coordinate heart contractions; anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrillation; the use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator device; and heart-failure patient education.
In a previous report in Clinical Chemistry, we described much higher international normalized ratios (INRs) [1] with recombinant Neoplastin R (Roche Diagnostics) than with tissue-extract Neoplastin Plus (Roche Diagnostics) in patients initiating oral anticoagulant therapy (1).
Many nonrandomized retrospective studies have reported better outcomes in patients whose anticoagulant therapy is managed by an AMS vs management by a primary care physician or specialist alone.
Their topics include in vivo models for evaluating antithrombotics and thrombolytics, principle and practice in novel anticoagulant therapy, antithrombotic effects of naturally derived products on coagulation and platelet function, potential therapeutic and diagnostic implications of adhesion molecules, and the diagnosis and management of sickle cell disorders.

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