of 22 tRNA genes were shown in Table III.
Agris, "5-Methylcytidine is required for cooperative binding of magnesium (2+) and a conformational transition at the anticodon
stem-loop of yeast phenylalanine tRNA," Biochemistry, vol.
Talbot, "Severe childhood SMA and axonal CMT due to anticodon
binding domain mutations in the GARS gene," Neurology, vol.
In both cases, the consensus nucleotide and the changed nucleotide are recognised by the same nucleotide in the anticodon
[13.] Osawa T, Ito K, Inanaga H, Nureki O, Tomita K, Numata T (2009) Conserved cysteine residues of GidA are essential for biogenesis of 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine at tRNA anticodon
. Structure 17: 713-24.
Because the conjugation product enhances the interaction between the codon and anticodon
of tRNALeu(UUR), mitochondrial taurine content regulates the biosynthesis of mitochondria encoded proteins and hence the activity of respiratory chain complexes [14-16].
The full-length protein containing the unnatural amino acid could be produced when the four-base codon is successfully decoded by the unnatural aminoacyl-tRNA having the corresponding four-base anticodon
. On the other hand, when the first three bases of the four-base codon are decoded as a three-base codon by a cognate naturally occurring aminoacyl-tRNA, a frame shift occurs that causes the emergence of a stop codon resulting in the termination of peptide elongation.
It is an amber decoding tRNACUA , showing some unusual features compared to other tRNAs [11,17-19]: the anticodon
stem is longer (6 nucleotides instead of 5), while other parts are shorter: D-loop with only 5 bases, acceptor, and D-stems separated by one base instead of 2 and a variable loop of only 3 bases.
In addition, the lack of chemical modification, such as taurine modification in the anticodon
loop of mitochondrial tRNAs, has been reported for mitochondrial diseases (5,6).
Separately, a 3-chlorotyrosinecharged tRNA containing a CUs anticodon
, was prepared by a combination of chemical synthesis and enzymatic ligation, followed by aminoacylation of 3-chlorotyrosine using an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (Fig.
The E Site is the exit site for the tRNA anticodon
once it deposits its amino acid from the cytoplasm onto the growing polypeptide chain.
Each codon binds a set of three nucleotides into an anticodon
which is called tRNA molecule (transfer RNA).