antidepressant

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Related to antidepressive: Antidepressant drugs, Antidepressive agents

antidepressant,

any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
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. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapypsychotherapy,
treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods.
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. Before the introduction of such drugs in the late 1950s, most patients with major depression had no recourse but hospitalization; only 45% improved after one year. In contrast, 80%–90% of such patients can expect significant relief from depression with one of the medications now prescribed.

Antidepressants act on the flow of the neurotransmitters epinephrineepinephrine
, hormone important to the body's metabolism, also known as adrenaline. Epinephrine, a catecholamine, together with norepinephrine, is secreted principally by the medulla of the adrenal gland.
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, serotoninserotonin
, organic compound that was first recognized as a powerful vasoconstrictor occurring in blood serum. It was partially purified, crystallized, and named in 1948, and its structure was deduced a year later.
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, and norepinephrinenorepinephrine
, a neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family that mediates chemical communication in the sympathetic nervous system, a branch of the autonomic nervous system.
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 across neural synapsessynapse
, junction between various signal-transmitter cells, either between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle or gland. A nerve impulse reaches the synapse through the axon, or transmitting end, of a nerve cell, or neuron.
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. Common antidepressants include monamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tricyclics such as imipramine (Tofranil) and amitriptyline (Elavil), and the newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline HCL (Zoloft). Venlafaxine (Effexor) inhibits both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake.

The choice of antidepressant often has more to do with its side effects (variously sedation, constipation, hypotension, tachycardia, weight gain, sexual dysfunction) than efficacy, as they are generally regarded to be equally effective. The newer drugs, especially SSRIs, are tolerated better and are currently by far the most widely prescribed, but SSRIs also appear to be less effective in children and teenagers and may cause some of them to become suicidal.

antidepressant

[‚an·tē·di′pres·ənt]
(pharmacology)
A drug, such as imipramine and tranylcypromine, that relieves depression by increasing central sympathetic activity.

antidepressant

any of a class of drugs used to alleviate depression
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, a measurement of BrdU positive cells and neurons in the hippocampus can be an indicator to measure the effectiveness of an antidepressive agent.
However, the proposed antidepressive capacities of rTMS have not been confirmed in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD).[10]
His medical and family history were unremarkable except that he was married with four children and was using antidepressive medications for the last five years.
Furthermore, it is recently discovered that the effect of antidepressant medicine could be the upregulation of neurogenesis especially in the adult hippocampus, which can be expressed by S100B values [14], supporting the hypothesis that S100B seems to be a marker of antidepressive treatment outcomes.
Thus, at higher tested doses of HSLNs (100 and 200 mg/kg), significant antidepressive efficacy in mice was observed in comparison to control and crude extract treated groups.
This compound has been demonstrated to possess several biological activities including immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antiasthmatic, anticarcinogenic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidepressive, and antiamoebic activities [10].
Preclinical, observational, and experimental studies suggest that ayahuasca and its alkaloids have anxiolytic, antidepressive, and antiaddictive effects (2,3,10-14), and studies with healthy volunteers ((2-8)) and psychiatric patients (10,11) show that it is well tolerated.
Earlier research of our team has found that meranzin hydrate could accelerate gastrointestinal motility in rats subjected to the forced swimming test and reverse the inhibition effect of the decreased ghrelin levels on gastrointestinal motility, demonstrating that meranzin hydrate possessed antidepressive and prokinetic-like effects [23].
Hallak, "Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca: A systematic literature review of animal and human studies," Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, vol.
Recent studies have also provided evidence that Tet1 knockout showed antidepressive phenotypes by affecting neurogenesis in the hippocampus [94].
On the other hand, previous studies reported that a low vitamin B12 and folic acid status is associated with poor response to antidepressive treatments [10, 14].
However, later on, our patient presented manic symptoms, interpreted as drug induced mania, and the antidepressive was discontinued.