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Related to antidepressive: Antidepressant drugs, Antidepressive agents


any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depressiondepression,
in psychiatry, a symptom of mood disorder characterized by intense feelings of loss, sadness, hopelessness, failure, and rejection. The two major types of mood disorder are unipolar disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, whose sufferers are
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. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapypsychotherapy,
treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods.
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. Before the introduction of such drugs in the late 1950s, most patients with major depression had no recourse but hospitalization; only 45% improved after one year. In contrast, 80%–90% of such patients can expect significant relief from depression with one of the medications now prescribed.

Antidepressants act on the flow of the neurotransmitters epinephrineepinephrine
, hormone important to the body's metabolism, also known as adrenaline. Epinephrine, a catecholamine, together with norepinephrine, is secreted principally by the medulla of the adrenal gland.
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, serotoninserotonin
, organic compound that was first recognized as a powerful vasoconstrictor occurring in blood serum. It was partially purified, crystallized, and named in 1948, and its structure was deduced a year later.
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, and norepinephrinenorepinephrine
, a neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family that mediates chemical communication in the sympathetic nervous system, a branch of the autonomic nervous system.
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 across neural synapsessynapse
, junction between various signal-transmitter cells, either between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle or gland. A nerve impulse reaches the synapse through the axon, or transmitting end, of a nerve cell, or neuron.
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. Common antidepressants include monamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tricyclics such as imipramine (Tofranil) and amitriptyline (Elavil), and the newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline HCL (Zoloft). Venlafaxine (Effexor) inhibits both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake.

The choice of antidepressant often has more to do with its side effects (variously sedation, constipation, hypotension, tachycardia, weight gain, sexual dysfunction) than efficacy, as they are generally regarded to be equally effective. The newer drugs, especially SSRIs, are tolerated better and are currently by far the most widely prescribed, but SSRIs also appear to be less effective in children and teenagers and may cause some of them to become suicidal.


A drug, such as imipramine and tranylcypromine, that relieves depression by increasing central sympathetic activity.


any of a class of drugs used to alleviate depression
References in periodicals archive ?
5% sodium carboxymethycellulose as in (i) (weeks 5 7), dissolved with fluoxetine (Eli Lilly, USA), an antidepressive drug at dosage 2.
The spectral frequency changes as observed after the administration of rutin and quercetin are therefore in line with the idea that field potentials and by it the electropharmacogram is reflecting the balance of neurotransmitter activity at a given place and at a given time leading to antidepressive and/or neuroprotective action.
the elevated plus maze test (EPM) demonstrating anxiolytic efficacy, and the tail suspension test (TST) as an equivalent for antidepressive action.
This prospective study demonstrates, for the first time, a statistically significant correlation between CYP2D6 genotype and adverse effects of antidepressive medication.
Research over the last ten years in both humans and animal models has shown the antidepressive mechanism of exercise.
Although the mechanism by which antidepressants prevent migraine headache is unknown, improvement is independent from treating masked depression; the response occurs sooner than the antidepressive effect.
The global market for antidepressive drugs is growing at a rate of 2% per year, with global sales of $16.
BALTIMORE -- Chamomile extract therapy demonstrated both anxiolytic and antidepressive effects in a two-part randomized, controlled, blinded study of 57 patients with mild to moderate generalized anxiety disorder.
His research background also includes genetics, antidepressive stimulation techniques, and sleep medicine.
Study of the antidepressive effects of a biological transmethylating agent (S-adenosyl-methione or SAM).
Professor Stefan Bren, at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, said: "It is possible that it leads to the formation of new brain cells, in the same way as with antidepressive drugs.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) [4] have been the cornerstones of antidepressive therapy for over three decades, and more than 1 million patients received TCAs in the US m 2000 (1).