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A resuscitation attempt was defined as the provision of airway support (by intubation or bag-valve mask), defibrillation, and administration of medications, including epinephrine, atropine, and antidysrhythmic agents.
Cardiac medications, [beta]-blockers with marked antidysrhythmic (quinidine-like) effects (e.g., propranolol [Inderal[R]], sotalol [Betapace[R]], oxprenolol [Trasicor[R]]) inhibit glycogenolysis and are most likely to be associated with hypoglycemia in older adults (Burks & Gopalan, 2005; Sharma, Tefera, & Aminzay, 2009).
Amiodarone, while a highly effective antidysrhythmic, has the potential to cause severe pulmonary toxicity, ranging from mild, reversible injury to pulmonary fibrosis.
A first subgroup of individuals was then selected from the above population on the basis of responses to the questionnaire, excluding those with any previous history of vascular disease or diabetes mellitus and those taking any cardioactive drugs (aspirin, [beta] blockers, diuretics, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-2 blockers, [alpha] blockers, statins, calcium- or potassium-channel blockers, antidysrhythmic drugs, or digoxin).