where this population also has a high prevalence (>3 percent) of cryptococcal antigenaemia
In this scenario, almost 100% of eligible patients were screened for cryptococcal antigenaemia
Public health and clinical attention are mostly on optimization of antifungal therapy and screening for asymptomatic antigenaemia
; very limited or no attention has been given to the social and economic challenges faced by these patients.
Studies carried out in human subjects for the microfilaricidal and adulticidal effect of doxycycline showed significant reduction in microfilaraemia and antigenaemia
after 8 weeks doxycycline treatment (8,9,10,11).
 Positive Cryptococcal antigenaemia
is an independent predictor of CM and death in patients with severe immunosuppression.
Cases of probable systemic CMV infection were identified by CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CMV pp65 antigenaemia
test, CMV viral culture, and CMV serology.
Seventy-seven (1.84%) out of the total potential donor population tested positive for HCV antibody, while 290 (6.94%) were seropositive for hepatitis B virus surface antigenaemia
. From the five-year period under review, HBsAg expression remained steady throughout the period (p for trend = 0.4592) whereas HCV antibody reactivity recorded a significant year-on-year decreasing trend from 2012 up to 2015 with a percentage reduction from 2.71 to 0.93 (p for trend = 0.0161) (see Table 1).
Long-term delta antigenaemia
without appearance of delta antibody in two immunodeficient patients.
those with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenaemia
, where early intervention with fluconazole therapy can prevent progression to meningitis, potentially saving a life).
Failure to detect FeLV viral RNA in about 13% p27 antigen-positive cats (p27-positive/viral RNA-negative) could result from atypical infection, wherein the virus is sequestered and replicates locally in tissues such as salivary gland, mammary gland, and urinary epithelium, causing intermittent or low-grade antigenaemia
, although there is no detectable viraemia [28,29].
The formation of typical noncaseating granulomas represents the final product of an incomplete antigens degradation, associated with an exuberant macrophage and T- and B-cell activity due to prolonged antigenaemia
 The WHO, in their recently issued Rapid Advice guideline, indicated that routine screening for cryptococcal disease in ART-naive adults with a [CD4.sup.+] T-lymphocyte count <100 cells/ [micro] may be considered prior to ART initiation in populations with a high prevalence of cryptococcal antigenaemia
.  In two ART cohorts in SA, the prevalence of newly-diagnosed antigenaemia
among patients with a [CD4.sup.+]T-lymphocyte count <100 cells/[micro]l was 4% and 7%, respectively.