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see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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A substance that initiates and mediates the formation of the corresponding immune body, termed antibody. Antigens can also react with formed antibodies. Antigen-antibody reactions serve as host defenses against microorganisms and other foreign bodies, or are used in laboratory tests for detecting the presence of either antigen or antibody. See Antibody, Antigen-antibody reaction

A protein immunogen (any substance capable of inducing an immune response) is usually composed of a large number of antigenic determinants. Thus, immunizing an animal with a protein results in the formation of a number of antibody molecules with different specificities. The antigenicity of a protein is determined by its sequence of amino acids as well as by its conformation. Antigens may be introduced into an animal by ingestion, inhalation, sometimes by contact with skin, or more regularly by injection into the bloodstream, skin, peritoneum, or other body part.

With a few exceptions, such as the autoantigens and the isoantigens of the blood groups, antigens produce antibody only in species other than the ones from which they are derived. All complete proteins are antigenic, as are many bacterial and other polysaccharides, some nucleic acids, and some lipids. Antigenicity may be modified or abolished by chemical treatments, including degradation or enzymatic digestion; it may be notably increased by the incorporation of antigen into oils or other adjuvants. See Isoantigen

Bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and other microorganisms are important sources of antigens. These may be proteins or polysaccharides derived from the outer surfaces of the cell (capsular antigens), from the cell interior (the somatic or O antigens), or from the flagella (the flagellar or H antigens). Other antigens either are excreted by the cell or are released into the medium during cell death and disruption; these include many enzymes and toxins, of which diphtheria, tetanus, and botulinus toxins are important examples. The presence of antibody to one of these constituent antigens in human or animal sera is presumptive evidence of past or present contact with specific microorganisms, and this finds application in clinical diagnosis and epidemiological surveys. See Botulism, Diphtheria, Toxin

Microbial antigens prepared to induce protective antibodies are termed vaccines. They may consist of either attenuated living or killed whole cells, or extracts of these. Since whole microorganisms are complex structures, vaccines may contain 10 or more distinct antigens, of which generally not more than one or two engender a protective antibody. Examples of these are smallpox vaccine, a living attenuated virus; typhoid vaccine, killed bacterial cells; and diphtheria toxoid, detoxified culture fluid. Several independent vaccines may be mixed to give a combined vaccine, and thus reduce the number of injections necessary for immunization, but such mixing can result in a lesser response to each component of the mixture. See Vaccination

Allergens are antigens that induce allergic states in humans or animals. Examples are preparations from poison ivy, cottonseed, or horse dander, or simple chemicals such as formaldehyde or picryl chloride. See Hypersensitivity, Immunology


A substance which reacts with the products of specific humoral or cellular immunity, even those induced by related heterologous immunogens.


a substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
References in periodicals archive ?
By attaching a photoreactive agent to the antigene and delivering light energy to the attachment site, the light-sensitive drug complex becomes activated, triggering a cleavage or cross-linking reaction.
The etiology of hydroa vacciniforme is not known and its association with human leukocyte antigenes DRB1 locus has been demonstrated (4).
protein 7,47 [+ or -] 1,12 0,542 Albumin 3,37 [+ or -] 0,72 0,542 Globulin 4,05 [+ or -] 1,19 0,468 IgG mg/l 2414,25 [+ or -] 2102 0,664 IgA mg/l 250,12 [+ or -] 231,27 0,293 IgM mg/l 212 [+ or -] 145,96 0,543 Kolesterol 133,25 [+ or -] 61,08 0,787 Trigliserit 100,51 [+ or -] 64,13 0,886 HLA A32 ve DRB1,04 AST: aspartat aminotransferaz, ALT: alanin aminotransferaz, GGT: gamaglutamil transpeptidaz, ALP: alkalen fosfataz, HLA: human leucocyte antigene, OIH: otoimmun hepatit, SS: standart sapma Tablo 3.
En plus des six maladies cibles classiques, le ministere de la Sante a introduit de nouveaux antigenes dans le calendrier national de vaccination : La vaccination des nouveaux nes contre l'hepatite virale type B a ete introduite en 1999 et le taux de couverture specifique a cet antigene est de 93 % en 2002 et de 92 % en 2003.
Parallelement a la mise en route de ces differents programmes, un suivi continu de la couverture vaccinale a permis de moduler le calendrier national de vaccination en introduisant de nouveaux antigenes et des rappels.
Contract notice: provision of reagents and consumables for the detection of antigenes by immunohistochemistry technique including hybridization in situ, with provision of automata.
Existence in an organism of the antibodies reacting with antigenes to VL of cattle indicates presence at people of a virus or its fragments due to consumption of meat, milk and dairy products from the infected animals.
La couverture vaccinale contre les antigenes chez l'enfant est de plus de 90% dans la wilaya d'Oran, a-t-on appris, jeudi dernier, de source medicale relevant de la Direction de la sante et de la population.
32) Although the mother's name and patronymic are not known, our preceding discussion raises the possibility that Antigenes was her father's name.
Fungal antigens act similarly to the super antigenes and stimulate lymphocytes T to the production of the excessive number of cytokines, mainly interleukin 2 (Il-2).
7 Simiquidas comienza narrando en primera persona que el motivo de una pasada excursion campestre por la isla de Cos no era otro que asistir, junto con sus amigos Eucrito y Amintas, al festival de las Talisias que se habia de celebrar en honor de Demeter en la finca de los nobles Frasidamo y Antigenes (vv.