In campylobacter, antigenic variation
of Surface layer proteins (SLPs) is the result of homologous recombination that leads to its antigenic variation
falciparum is the var gene family which encodes PfEMP1, a protein that is exported to the 'knob like' binding structures on the surface of infected erythrocytes with a key role in antigenic variation
and cytoadherence (12).
The virus undergoes antigenic variation
year by year due to the selection of antigenic variants by immunological pressure of the hosts.
The main reservoirs for antigenic variation
are the vast flocks of birds in China, which are in close contact with large human populations.
The persistence of the rickettsia in the infected host seems to be a consequence of the antigenic variation
of the parasite observed during A.
at site 1 of type C viruses is often based on alternate switching between alanine and threonine residues without accumulation of amino acid substitutions (14).
of Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A.
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism caused by these helminths is continuously increasing and the reason of increasing gastrointestinal parasitism is their antigenic variation
. With the help of antigenic variation
, parasites can evade host immune response.
The text blends classical and medical parasitology with more modern disciplines, discussing the molecular and immunological basis for pathogenesis, metabolic pathways, and antigenic variation
for the protozoan pathogens.
(*) A fourfold or greater difference in hemagglutination-inhibition titers between two viruses is indicative of antigenic variation