Cestoil, Innospec, Afton Chemical, and TDS, are examples of chemical producers that market antiknock
additives containing metallic additives.
Li  and Du  conducted the antiknock
and transient thermal analysis for a capsule using decoupling method, but ignoring the thermomechanical coupling effect.
et al., "Study of Antiknock
Performance Under Various Octane Numbers and Compression Ratios in a DISI Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1804.
Fortunately, the new alternative methods of improving the antiknock
properties of petrol are now available and include the application of up-to-date technologies and chemical processing techniques in the production of petrol and the use of high octane number components (oxygenates).
In 2002, of the published patents and patent applications 57% described deposit control additives, 26% antiknock
agents, 5% combustion improvers, 5% water stabilizers in petrol, 3% antioxidants, inhibitors, stabilizers, and others (emission reducing additives, antiwear agents, de-emulsifiers, etc.).
Lead (Pb), a toxic contaminant metal used in many important industrial processes, is widely used in batteries, paint, and varnishes, as an antiknock
compound in gasoline, in pipe covering, and in welding.
Octane ratings measure the antiknock
properties of a gasoline; higher numbers indicate a better resistance to knocking.
 Yet other industries must be phased out because they use unacceptable toxic chemicals, such as tetraethyl, an antiknock
additive used in leaded gasoline, for which there are no appropriate substitutes.
Kitman builds the story line around an alleged plot by the companies, billed in the accompanying press release as a "conspiracy," to suppress an allegedly superior antiknock
There were safer antiknock
additives available, including alcohol and benzene blends.
In batteries and antiknock
gasoline additives, lead had a monumental impact on the growth of the automotive industry.
Nonprice competition, as occurred between the commercial airlines prior to deregulation,(18) and, more recently, amongst the parties to an alleged conspiracy to fix the prices of antiknock
gasoline additives,(19) raises the cost of reaching a collusive agreement, increases the chances that cheating will go unpunished, and makes it more likely that the agreement will be detected.