The phylogenetic tree of the [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiport
sequences (SOS1), based on higher plants, animals, fungi, and Escherichia coli, indicated two distinct "clusters", as supported by the high bootstrap value, i.e., a vacuole cluster and a plasma membrane cluster, which indicates that Musa 07 is a fragment of the [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiporter gene (Figure 2).
We can consider what will happen if only symport rules or antiport
rules are allowed in timed tissue P systems.
The mutation that deactivated [DELTA]12 and [DELTA]-6 desaturase drastically inhibited [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiport
activity of the mutant cells in cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp.
Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of a vacuolar Na/H antiport
Cotransport may be in the same direction (symport) or in the opposite direction (antiport
Blumwald, "Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of a vacuolar [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiport
in Arabidopsis," Science, vol.
 include membrane voltage-sensitive ion channels, [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiport
, [Ca.sup.2+] signaling, multiple pharmacologically distinct intracellular [Ca.sup.2+] stores, cAMP/PKA, PKC, nitric oxide, cGMP, MEK/ERK, and PI3K.
Ions are transported by [Na.sup.+]/[H.sup.+] antiport
transporters on the tonoplast or in the plasmatic membrane (APSE; BLUMWALD, 2007).
--Removing Ca from the cell by the Na-Ca sarcolemma antiport
mechanism and through the action of the sarcolemma pump.
Farias, "Shortterm effects of thyroid hormones on the Na/H antiport
in L6 myoblasts: high molecular specificity for 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine," Endocrinology, vol.