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The high energy at the time and the creation and destruction of a large number of quarks and antiquarks would also create a variety of flux tubes, some of which could be knots.
Furthermore, pairs of quarks and antiquarks randomly materialize out of the seeming emptiness of space forming a sea of short-lived particles that interact with the other quarks and gluons already present in baryons and mesons.
Physicists at a European particle accelerator say they've spotted a never-before-seen elementary particle composed of five of the fundamental constituents known as quarks and antiquarks.
For instance, it's possible that the fivefold structure is not a spherical lump but rather a moleculelike arrangement in which a so-called kaon, which is made of a quark and an antiquark, orbits a neutron, which is made of three quarks.
This structure, called a chiral condensate, consists of quark-antiquark pairs, but only certain types of quarks pair up with certain types of antiquarks.
A quark and an antiquark may annihilate to form a lepton.
A meson is a particle made up of a quark paired with an antiquark.
Thus, in the discussion carried out below, baryons contain four quarks and one antiquark.
is composed by one up quark and one down antiquark (u[bar.
Other sorts of particles, called mesons, consist of a quark and an antiquark bound together.
the within-nucleon transition of a d-quark to a uquark, or the reverse, is associated with the formation of an antiquark, without the requirement of GeV energies necessary to break apart the nucleus.
The W can then decay into a lighter quark and an antiquark or into a pair of leptons (an electron and electron neutrino or a muon and muon neutrino).
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