globulin

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Related to antithymocyte globulin: cyclosporine, Atgam, antithymocyte globulin equine

globulin,

any of a large family of proteinsprotein,
any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight.
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 of a spherical or globular shape that are widely distributed throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Many of them have been prepared in pure crystalline form. The term globulin is a partly procedural one, used in classifying an otherwise diverse group of proteins that are soluble in water or dilute salt solutions. Among the most important are the immunoglobulins (Ig), the antibodies of the immune system (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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). They are classified into five types based upon structure: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. IgG or &ggr;-globulin is the most common and forms about 70% of the immunoglobins in the blood. Other globulins are involved in the transport of a variety of substances, including lipidslipids,
a broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents. The definition excludes the mineral oils and other petroleum products obtained from fossil material.
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, hormoneshormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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, and inorganic ions.

Globulin

A general name for any member of a heterogeneous group of serum proteins precipitated by 50% saturated ammonium sulfate. See Protein, Serum

The introduction of electrophoresis during the 1930s permitted subdivision of the globulins into alpha, beta, and gamma globulins on the basis of relative mobility at alkaline pH (8.6). However, each of these subgroups, though electrophoretically homogeneous, consists of a great variety of proteins with different biological properties and markedly different sizes and chemical properties other than net charge. Thus the α2-globulins, for example, as defined by moving boundary or paper electrophoresis, contain proteins ranging in molecular weight from approximately 50,000 to approximately 1,000,000 (α2-macroglobulin), each with differing functions. See Immunoglobulin

globulin

[′gläb·yə·lən]
(biochemistry)
A heat-labile serum protein precipitated by 50% saturated ammonium sulfate and soluble in dilute salt solutions.

globulin

any of a group of simple proteins, including gamma globulin, that are generally insoluble in water but soluble in salt solutions and coagulated by heat
References in periodicals archive ?
Krauss et al., "Risk factors and consequences of delayed graft function in deceased donor renal transplant patients receiving antithymocyte globulin induction," Transplantation, vol.
Lezaic, "Efficacy and safety of single and multiple dose antithymocyte globulin induction treatment in living related renal transplantation," Biomedicine & Aging Pathology, vol.
Among these, 9120 (70.5%) received antithymocyte globulin (ATG), 1687 (13.0%) received alemtuzumab, and 2137 (16.5%) received basiliximab for induction.
Pretransplant treatments included thyothepa (day -7; 8 mg/kg), fludarabine (days -6 to -3; 120 mg/[m.sup.2]), treosulfan (days -6 to -4; 42 g/[m.sup.2]), and antithymocyte globulin (days -4 to -2; 45 mg/kg).
The conditioning regimen used by Spitzer and colleagues included cyclophosphamide and thymic irradiation before transplantation, antithymocyte globulin before and after transplantation, and cyclosporine.
Positive CDC-XM can be observed in other situations, notably in recipients with an autoimmune disease [3] or preexisting antibodies not detected by single-antigen bead array due to complement interference [4] or previously treated by desensitization protocols such as rituximab (RTX), antithymocyte globulin, and intravenous immunoglobulins [5].
Patient Age/race/ Donor Induction Time to 1st PCR number sex/weight type/PRA 1st PCR (copies) (kg) (%) (days) 1 28/AA/M/95 D/16 ATG 178 42807 2 39/W/M/105 L/0 IL2-ra 90 1857 3 32/AA/M/116 D/0 ATG 85 741 4 32/AA/M/82 D/88 ATG 104 2987 Patient SCr/GFR/CrCl Dose-adjusted Peak PCR number at time of for CrCl at (copies) 1st PCR time of 1st PCR (mg/day) 1 2.2/43/53 900 42807 2 1.7/45/74 450 2257 3 1.8/53/67 450 6240 4 1.5/65/73 450 2987 ATG: antithymocyte globulin; AA: African American; CrCl: creatinine clearance (mL/min); D: deceased donor; GFR: glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/[1.73.sup.2]); IL2-ra: interleukin 2 receptor antagonist; L: living donor; M: male; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PRA: panel reactive antibodies; SCr: serum creatinine (mg/dL); W: White.
Moreover, immunosuppressive therapy with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine (CyA) is very effective for AA, while intensive immunosuppressive therapy with ATG and CyA might be a useful strategy for steroid-resistant HLH [5].
Induction therapy that used antithymocyte globulin was administered for the first 3 days (Thymoglobuline, Genzyme Corporation, Naarden, the Netherlands).
Use of the immunosuppressant antithymocyte globulin (ATG) increases the risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease during the early post-transplant period among cadaveric kidney recipients, according to Chinese researchers.
Patient characteristics n % Number of Patients 27 Number of Transplants 28 Median Age in years (range) 8 (2-17) Sex Male 17 60.7 Female 11 39.3 Risk Classification Class I 5 17.8 Class II 8 28.5 Class III 14 50 2nd transplant 3.5 Donor Status Thalassemia Minor 18 64.3 Normal 10 35.7 Stem Cell Source Bone Marrow 15 53.5 Peripheral Blood 10 35.7 Cord Blood 2 7.2 Cord Blood + Bone 1 3.6 Marrow (same donor) Conditioning Regimen Busulphan+ 11 39.3 Cyclophosphamide Busulphan+ 2 7.2 Cyclophosphamide+Thiotepa Pesaro Protocol 26 1 3.5 Pesaro Protocol 26+ATG 14 50 GVHD Prophylaxis Cyclosporine+Methotrexate 25 89.3 Cyclosporine 3 10.7 GVHD: Graft versus host disease; ATG: Antithymocyte globulin Table 2.