antitoxin


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antitoxin,

any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxinstoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's defenses are already established against invasion by the bacteria or other organisms that produce the toxin. See immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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.

Antitoxin

An antibody that will combine with and generally neutralize a particular toxin. When the manifestations of a disease are caused primarily by a microbial toxin, the corresponding antitoxin, if available in time, may have a pronounced prophylactic or curative effect. Apart from this, the other properties of an antitoxin are those of the antibody family (lgG, IgA, IgM) to which it belongs. See Antibody, Biologicals, Immunoglobulin

Antitoxins have been developed for nearly all microbial toxins. Diphtheria, tetanus, botulinus, gas gangrene, and scarlatinal toxins are important examples. Antitoxins may be formed in humans as a result of the disease or the carrier state, or following vaccination with toxoids, and these may confer active immunity. The status of this can be evaluated through skin tests, or by titration of the serum antitoxin level. See Botulism, Diphtheria, Immunity, Toxin-antitoxin reaction

antitoxin

[‚an·tē′täk·sən]
(immunology)
An antibody elaborated by the body in response to a bacterial toxin that will combine with and generally neutralize the toxin.

antitoxin

1. an antibody that neutralizes a toxin
2. blood serum that contains a specific antibody
References in periodicals archive ?
The antitoxin level of case-patient 1 was considered nonprotective according to World Health Organization guidelines, whereas her husband's antitoxin level was considered fully protective (12).
Availability of antitoxin must be ensured at all times.
Holmes, "Wound botulism in injection drug users: time to antitoxin correlates with intensive care unit length of stay," The Western Journal Of Emergency Medicine, vol.
Treatment includes admission of the patient to the ICU and prescription of antitoxins and guanidine hydrochloride.
In the present study, toxin antitoxin neutralization test on the skin of albino guinea pigs and lethal toxicity test I/P in mice were applied using specific antitoxin to detect and identify the toxigenic strains of C.perfringens recovered from laboratory animal.
In this study we had emphasized the RelE homolog which acts as putative TA operon having toxin and antitoxin gene on its own.
In Strep, the antitoxin is bound to the toxin in a way that keeps the toxin inactive.
The standard treatment for botulism is antitoxin therapy.
They also tested a combined rule that assigned an additional 2 points to a serum antitoxin A IgG level less than 1.29 ELISA units.
Thus, It was proposed the existence of chemical and non-biological interactions between toxin and antitoxin, at the same time mediated the first by the presence of two groups that he named toxophore and haptophore, one of those had no toxic effect.
A baby with botulism has become the first person in the UK to be treated with the human-derived botulinum antitoxin (Baby BIG).
She plucks the tiny tick off the fallen mother bat and then injects her with an antitoxin to counteract the tick's poison.