antitoxin


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antitoxin,

any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxinstoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's defenses are already established against invasion by the bacteria or other organisms that produce the toxin. See immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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.

Antitoxin

An antibody that will combine with and generally neutralize a particular toxin. When the manifestations of a disease are caused primarily by a microbial toxin, the corresponding antitoxin, if available in time, may have a pronounced prophylactic or curative effect. Apart from this, the other properties of an antitoxin are those of the antibody family (lgG, IgA, IgM) to which it belongs. See Antibody, Biologicals, Immunoglobulin

Antitoxins have been developed for nearly all microbial toxins. Diphtheria, tetanus, botulinus, gas gangrene, and scarlatinal toxins are important examples. Antitoxins may be formed in humans as a result of the disease or the carrier state, or following vaccination with toxoids, and these may confer active immunity. The status of this can be evaluated through skin tests, or by titration of the serum antitoxin level. See Botulism, Diphtheria, Immunity, Toxin-antitoxin reaction

antitoxin

[‚an·tē′täk·sən]
(immunology)
An antibody elaborated by the body in response to a bacterial toxin that will combine with and generally neutralize the toxin.

antitoxin

1. an antibody that neutralizes a toxin
2. blood serum that contains a specific antibody
References in periodicals archive ?
Treatment includes admission of the patient to the ICU and prescription of antitoxins and guanidine hydrochloride.
Access to diphtheria antitoxin for therapy and diagnostics.
In the present study, toxin antitoxin neutralization test on the skin of albino guinea pigs and lethal toxicity test I/P in mice were applied using specific antitoxin to detect and identify the toxigenic strains of C.
If there were no antitoxin, the bacteria would kill itself," said Craig L.
The importance of obtaining a complete family history was critical to the physicians making a quick diagnosis and administering the antitoxin within 7 hours of admission.
Unfortunately, this rule proved to be far less predictive in the validation cohort, in which 26 patients had antitoxin A IgG data available.
He considers antitoxin (antibody) a normal component of the cell with special <<sidechains>> (Receptors) as part of the operational cellular apparatus.
Attached to these films are toxin or antitoxin antibody molecules.
Once the diagnosis is made, the treatment begins with shots of an antitoxin.
An antitoxin may be effective if administered early.
2 MM in FY 03 (part of Tripler Hospital funding) to test HBI's anthrax antitoxin compounds further; Sen.