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Related to antitoxin: tetanus antitoxin, diphtheria antitoxin, Botulinum antitoxin


any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxinstoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's defenses are already established against invasion by the bacteria or other organisms that produce the toxin. See immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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An antibody that will combine with and generally neutralize a particular toxin. When the manifestations of a disease are caused primarily by a microbial toxin, the corresponding antitoxin, if available in time, may have a pronounced prophylactic or curative effect. Apart from this, the other properties of an antitoxin are those of the antibody family (lgG, IgA, IgM) to which it belongs. See Antibody, Biologicals, Immunoglobulin

Antitoxins have been developed for nearly all microbial toxins. Diphtheria, tetanus, botulinus, gas gangrene, and scarlatinal toxins are important examples. Antitoxins may be formed in humans as a result of the disease or the carrier state, or following vaccination with toxoids, and these may confer active immunity. The status of this can be evaluated through skin tests, or by titration of the serum antitoxin level. See Botulism, Diphtheria, Immunity, Toxin-antitoxin reaction


An antibody elaborated by the body in response to a bacterial toxin that will combine with and generally neutralize the toxin.


1. an antibody that neutralizes a toxin
2. blood serum that contains a specific antibody
References in periodicals archive ?
perfringens were subjected to typing with mice serum neutralization test using commercial diagnostic antitoxin against alpha, epsilon and toxins (Burrough's Welcome, U.
Epidemiology of three cases of severe diphtheria in Finnish patients with low antitoxin antibody levels.
If there were no antitoxin, the bacteria would kill itself," said Craig L.
Outbreak of type A botulism and development of a botulism surveillance and antitoxin release system in Argentina.
Micro cell culture method for determination of diphtheria toxin and antitoxin titres using VERO cells.
They also tested a combined rule that assigned an additional 2 points to a serum antitoxin A IgG level less than 1.
difficile, symptom-free carriers of the infection had a median of 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units per mL of serum IgG antitoxin A, and patients with a single episode of C.
Attached to these films are toxin or antitoxin antibody molecules.
Results from the antitoxin in vivo assay are illustrated in Fig.
The recommendation at the time was to investigate ricin-coated shrapnel or bullets immediately but hold off on a dust cloud weapon until an antitoxin could be made available.
An antitoxin may be effective if administered early.