Within the creative vision of the novel, Adam Bede serves as an antitype
of the "First Adam," father of the human race, while Dinah Morris is depicted as a New Eve, that is to say, as an antitype
of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
(50) In much the same way, Hilarius's drama brilliantly unites Eucharistic antitypes
(the desecrations of Nebuchadnezzar and Belshazzar) and types (Daniel and Habakkuk) together with the characters, prophecies, and hymns appropriate to Christmas and its octave.
(4)) Typology is a figure that unites time, harmonizes it, and gathers it together: "the type exists in the past and the antitype
in the present, or the type exists in the present and the antitype
in the future." (5) This reflects a basic attitude toward the world and one's place in it with regard to the passing of time.
The Old Testament is only umbra (shadow), figura, and signum; its sole theological relevance is in New Testament antitypes
. Put differently, there is no need to understand the Old Testament historically since all matters of theological interest are found in the New.
Basic to Courtmanche's purpose, one pursued from his thesis that Hawthorne repeatedly strove to dramatize in varying forms the fall of Adam and Eve and the force of evil represented in Satan, is his tracing of Hawthorne's attempts to treat antitypes
of these biblical figures in his tales and romances.
Given the two dialectics at the two levels, there are four distinctive antitypes
or patterns of breakdown in the sociocultural context of any community.
continually subsume or fulfill previous types.
The new appendix of this edition, by Scott Hahn, outlines Mary's role in Church tradition and shows the scriptural basis of several Marian dogmas by tracing "types" of Mary in the Old Testament to "antitypes
" in the New Testament.
When the antitypes
appeared, the types were also recognised in their full significance.
Based on these considerations it argues that the three earlier figures, Shimon ben Azzai, Shimon ben Zoma, and Elisha ben Abuyah (Aher) are presented as antitypes
to the ideal Rabbi Akiba, who embodies qualities that each of the others lacks.
All these results are even strongly supported by those of the CFA for these cell frequencies: all sixteen possible combinations of (LENGTH and CONTRIBUTION) x (MEDIUM and ANALYSIS) for which Kaunisto's predictions hold are among the strongest significant types and antitypes
(as ranked by the Q coefficient of pronouncedness).