antianxiety drug

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antianxiety drug,

drug administered for the relief of anxietyanxiety,
anticipatory tension or vague dread persisting in the absence of a specific threat. In contrast to fear, which is a realistic reaction to actual danger, anxiety is generally related to an unconscious threat.
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. Although their action is not fully understood, most antianxiety medications appear to affect the action of neurotransmitters in the brain (see serotoninserotonin
, organic compound that was first recognized as a powerful vasoconstrictor occurring in blood serum. It was partially purified, crystallized, and named in 1948, and its structure was deduced a year later.
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 and norepinephrinenorepinephrine
, a neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family that mediates chemical communication in the sympathetic nervous system, a branch of the autonomic nervous system.
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). They may work by affecting the limbic system, that part of the brain associated with emotion.

Antianxiety drugs frequently prescribed in the United States include the benzodiazepinesbenzodiazepine
, any of a class of drugs prescribed for their tranquilizing, antianxiety, sedative, and muscle-relaxing effects. Benzodiazepines are also prescribed for epilepsy and alcohol withdrawal.
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 alprazolam (Xanax) and clonazepam (Clonopin), most often prescribed for panic attacks and general anxiety. Long-term use is discouraged because of side effects (impaired alertness, sedation, interactions with alcohol and other drugs), potential for addiction, and withdrawal symptoms. Nonbenzodiazepine drugs that work by acting on benzodiazepine receptors include zolpidem (Ambien), which is widely prescribed as a sleeping pill. Beta-blockersbeta-blocker
or beta-adrenergic blocking agent
, drug that reduces the symptoms connected with hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, migraine headaches, and other disorders related to the sympathetic nervous system.
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, usually prescribed for hypertension, are sometimes used for people facing an anxiety-producing "crisis," such as performing on the stage or giving a speech. Buspirone (BuSpar), a drug chemically unrelated to the benzodiazepines or beta-blockers, is often preferred for cases of long-term anxiety because it has fewer side effects, less addictive potential, and no withdrawal symptoms.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Another important variable that was studied regarding the anxiolytic effect of strength training is age.
The role of Y1 receptors in the anxiolytic effect of NPY has been mostly investigated in the amygdala nuclei (46).
Many volatile oils rich in terpenes have a variety of pharmacological activities such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and antinociceptive [21,39,40].
In this study, differences in the anxiolytic and sedative-like activities and flavonoid profile of inflorescences and leaves of T.
Numerous species from the Lamiaceae familly have previously been reported to possess anxiolytic activity including Stachys tibetica, Stachys lavandulifolia, Salvia officinalis, Salvia elegans, Salvia, reuterana, and Scutellaria baicalensis (Rabbani et al.
Garay, "[5-HT.sub.3]- and [5-HT.sub.2C]-antagonist properties of cyamemazine: significance for its clinical anxiolytic activity," Psychopharmacology, vol.
In the present study, the anxiolytic, and antidepressant-like effects of the acute administration of TAE were studied in different animal models of anxiety and depression.
The results suggested that ZEO has strong sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic and muscle relaxant properties in various animal models.
However, these studies seemingly selected the concentrations of FATs arbitrarily, did not use an active anxiolytic drug for comparison, did not explore the presence or absence of dose-response effects, and tested other FATs.
SSRIs increase concentrations of 5-HT in the synapse cleft and thus have anxiolytic effects for almost all subtypes of anxiety disorders, including general anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Likewise, opipramol, a high-affinity nonselective sigma-receptor agonist, is active in several behavioural paradigms indicative of anxiolytic properties at doses (1-10 mg/kg) (Muller, Siebert, Holoubek, & Gentsch, 2004).