aorist

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aorist:

see tensetense
[O.Fr., from Lat.,=time], in the grammar of many languages, a category of time distinctions expressed by any conjugated form of a verb. In Latin inflection the tense of a verb is indicated by a suffix that also indicates the verb's voice, mood, person, and number.
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Aorist

 

a grammatical tense characteristic of several languages (Greek, Old Indo-European, Old Slavic, Old Russian, and others).

The aorist designates a completed action in the past—for example, the Old Slavic polozhikh b (I placed), as compared with the past imperfect tense, polagaakh b (I was placing). Inasmuch as the aorist expresses completed action, in those languages which have grammatical aspect it is most often formed from the verb stems of the perfective aspect. Aorists based on stems of the imperfective aspect designate a prolonged action. It is supposed that the meaning of the aorist as a past tense developed relatively late in the Indo-European languages and that originally the aorist form expressed an aspect designating in this instance a non-prolonged or instantaneous action regardless of tense. The term “aorist” is also used in certain languages to designate an aspect form which simply states an action without providing any indication of its length in time. For example, in aboriginal languages the aorist designates an action in process without any indication of the time of its completion.

References in periodicals archive ?
The model for such a formation rule is likely to have been provided by verbs whose imperative and, accordingly, -hi- future exhibited a base morph that was identical to that of the corresponding sigmatic aorist. This is, for instance, the case of the verb P[a.bar]li ne-'lead' (cf.
We can give as an example the verb gethein 'be happy.' The present gethei means 'he is happy,' the aorist egethese 'he became happy,' and the perfect gegethe means 'he is happy.' We see the reasons for the somewhat unhelpful labels "abnormal" or "intensive" perfect.
Des weiteren lasst sich Popovs Behauptung, Perfekt und Aorist wurden in den walachobulgarischen Urkunden nach beobachteten und nicht beobachteten Handlungen getrennt, die er in den Rang einer Tatsache erhebt, nicht beweisen.
To give an important example of the interplay: if an aorist is used of a stative verb, the nuance generated will often be ingressive (e.g.
Goodwin (1889: 17) noticed that in classical Greek, in "such expressions as he said, he commanded," "the action is of such a nature that it is not important to distinguish its duration from its occurrence." That is, the aspectual opposition between the Greek aorist indicative (i.e., the past perfective/simple past) and the imperfect indicative (i.e., the past imperfective) was sometimes neutralized when applied to verbs introducing direct speech, and both aspects could be used interchangeably, their distinction being "occasionally indifferent" (Goodwin 1900: 270).
Baum's discussion of the morphology of the imperative takes up the individual endings of this category and discusses the relationship of the imperative to the modal aorist injunctive.
In both 4 and 9, the root aorist of a + [square root of (ga)] provides the finite verb of the sentence.
(17) The ten are: lat 'present', lit 'perfect', lut 'second (or periphrastic) future', lrt 'future', let 'Vedic modal, or (sometimes) subjunctive', lot "imperative'; lan 'imperfect', lin 'optative', lun 'aorist', lrn 'conditional'--with asirlin 'benedictive' sometimes thrown in for good measure.
(9.) The aorists akah 'made', adat 'took' are also used.
The first, which Insler could not possibly have foreseen in 1972, is that Narten aorists--root aorists with *e: *e ablaut--seem not to have existed as a formal category in PIE.
Although the first elements of trasadasyu-, ksayadvira-type Rektionskomposita most often pattern with Class I thematic present stems or Class 10 -aya- presents, there are a number of formations where the correspondence is with an aorist stem (thematic aorist or subjunctive of a root aorist), (22) e.g., RV *vidadasva-, sanadrayi-, sanadvaja-, Rdhadri-, rdhadvara- (cf.
According to Paninian grammar, the imperfect (LAN) would place the action referred to in the more remote past, whereas the aorist (LUN) refers to a recent past (Astadhyayi 3.2.84, 110-11).