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Ai (āˈī), in the Bible. 1 Canaanite royal city, E of Bethel. Abraham pitched his tent there when he arrived in Canaan. It is probably the modern et-Tell, near Bethel (West Bank). Excavations have revealed a strongly fortified city situated there. Ai was in ruins at the time of Joshua's conquest. The account in chapter 7 of the Book of Joshua possibly refers instead to Bethel (1,) whose people may have used the nearby ruins of Ai as a bastion against the invading Israelites. It also appears as Hai, Aiath, and Aija. 2 City of the Ammorites, near Heshbon.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a river in the Bashkir ASSR and Cheliabinsk Oblast, RSFSR; a left tributary of the Ufa River. The Ai is 549 km long, with a basin area of 15,000 sq km. The river rises on the slopes of the Uraltau and flows northward in an intermontane depression. In turning to the west, the Ai cuts through a number of ranges. Karst has developed in the lower reaches of the Ufa Plateau. The river is predominantly snow fed, with an average discharge of about 80 cubic meters per second. The Ai freezes at the end of October or the beginning of November, and the ice breaks up in the middle of April. The river is controlled by reservoirs. The town of Zlatoust is located on the Ai.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.




The country code for Anguilla.
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(1) See Adobe Illustrator.

(2) See AI in a nutshell.

(3) (Artificial Intelligence) Devices and applications that exhibit human intelligence and behavior, including robots, self-driving cars, medical diagnosis and the ever-improving areas of voice, face and natural language recognition. Virtually every industry from finance to agriculture is using or exploring AI to improve operations and decision making. See intelligence.

AI implies the capability to learn as well as adapt through experience, and AI solutions differ from the traditional if this-do-that program logic. The term AI may refer to the entire field of artificial intelligence or to a specific AI system; for example, "there is an AI to handle this."

Large organizations, search engines and social media sites learn billions of details about the world's content and human behavior every day. One result of this knowledge is the voice-activated, natural language assistant, which includes Apple's Siri, Google's Assistant, Amazon's Alexa and Microsoft's Cortana. See AI in a nutshell, machine learning, neural network, virtual assistant and self-driving car.

A Past and Present Buzzword
The AI buzzword has often been abused as it has referred to any and all advancements. Today, it is the hottest buzzword in tech. Any product with the slightest breakthough is touted as having AI, whether it does or not. However, the acid test of AI was actually defined in the 1940s by English scientist, Alan Turing, who said, "A machine has artificial intelligence when there is no discernible difference between the conversation generated by the machine and that of an intelligent person" (see Turing test). Question and answer dialog is already here and will continue to get better; however, a "real" conversation like the androids in the movies could take a very long time.

The Loebner Prize
In 1991, American inventor Hugh Loebner launched a competition and annual award for the chatbot that exhibits the most human-like responses. See Loebner Prize.

Artificial Means Human
The term "intelligence" means processing capability; therefore, every computer is intelligent. However, artificial intelligence implies human-like intelligence. An ironic twist in terminology. See edge AI, AGI, chatbot, social robot, computer generations, neural network, AI anxiety and Watson.

Shakey the Robot
Developed in 1969 by the Stanford Research Institute, Shakey was the first fully mobile robot with artificial intelligence. Seven feet tall, Shakey was named after its rather unstable movements. (Image courtesy of The Computer History Museum,

Forty-Four Years Later - Still a Bit Shaky
Funded by DARPA and made by Boston Dynamics, the 400-pound, 6'2" Atlas was designed for emergency rescue. Built in 2013, Atlas stumbled a lot in its first tests; however, teams of AI engineers have taught Atlas to become very sophisticated. (Image courtesy of Boston Dynamics,

The Cerebras AI Computer
Founder and chief architect of Cerebras Systems, Sean Lie is holding the wafer that is the heart of the Cerebras computer. Designed for AI processing, it contains 2.6 trillion transistors (see Cerebras AI computer). (Image courtesy of Cerebras Systems,
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References in periodicals archive ?
Valve replacement in cases of gonococcal endocarditis should not be delayed, especially when acute aortic insufficiency develops.
Emergency valve-in-valve TAVI in a patient with acute, severe aortic insufficiency and cardiogenic shock presents unique technical challenges.
In obese treated with 15 mg, single (1/28) mild mitral valve regurgitation and 2 (2/28) mild aortic insufficiency were seen.
Aortic insufficiency is not nearly as common in acute aortic dissection as traditionally thought.
Comparison of pre- operative and post-operative clinical profiles of patients showed that left ventricle ejection fraction and severity of aortic insufficiency were significantly altered (PLess than0.05).
A transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated good valve position and trace aortic insufficiency. At the end of the procedure, an aortogram was performed which did not show any evidence of aortic injury.
Its use is contraindicated in the presence of a prosthetic aortic valve, aortic valve stenosis, moderate-to-severe aortic insufficiency, severe aortic or peripheral artery disease, or severe bleeding diatheses.
Aortic insufficiency resulting from annuloaortic ectasia and ascending aortic aneurysm together with aortic coarctation rarely occur, and surgical treatment is difficult.
Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is often associated with congenital defects particularly ventricular septal defect (30-50%), aortic insufficiency (20-30%), and bicuspid aortic valve (10%) and less commonly coarctation of the aorta, pulmonary stenosis, and atrial septal defects [10].
A mild degree of central aortic insufficiency resulting from incomplete diastolic coaptation of the cusps was detected by continuous Doppler echocardiography.
Ross procedure with aortic bioprosthesis in pulmonary position (Medtronic, Freestyle aortic root bioprosthesis, no:23) had been applied in a 14-year-old male patient suffering from severe aortic insufficiency secondary to acute rheumatic fever.