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(ā`ī), in the Bible. 1 Canaanite royal city, E of Bethel. Abraham pitched his tent there when he arrived in Canaan. It is probably the modern et-Tell, near Bethel (West Bank). Excavations have revealed a strongly fortified city situated there. Ai was in ruins at the time of Joshua's conquest. The account in chapter 7 of the Book of Joshua possibly refers instead to BethelBethel
[Heb.,=house of God]. 1 Ancient city of central Palestine, the modern Baytin, the West Bank, N of Jerusalem. According to the Bible, where it is frequently mentioned, it was originally called Luz (see Luz (1)).
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 (1,) whose people may have used the nearby ruins of Ai as a bastion against the invading Israelites. It also appears as Hai, Aiath, and Aija. 2 City of the Ammorites, near Heshbon.



a river in the Bashkir ASSR and Cheliabinsk Oblast, RSFSR; a left tributary of the Ufa River. The Ai is 549 km long, with a basin area of 15,000 sq km. The river rises on the slopes of the Uraltau and flows northward in an intermontane depression. In turning to the west, the Ai cuts through a number of ranges. Karst has developed in the lower reaches of the Ufa Plateau. The river is predominantly snow fed, with an average discharge of about 80 cubic meters per second. The Ai freezes at the end of October or the beginning of November, and the ice breaks up in the middle of April. The river is controlled by reservoirs. The town of Zlatoust is located on the Ai.




The country code for Anguilla.


(1) See Adobe Illustrator.

(2) (Artificial Intelligence) Devices and applications that exhibit human intelligence and behavior, including robots, driverless cars, medical diagnosis and expert systems. Voice and natural language recognition are major components.

Artificial intelligence implies the capability to learn and adapt through experience, and today's large organizations, search engines and social media sites are learning billions of details about the world's content and human behavior every day. One result of this knowledge is the voice-activated, natural language assistant, such as Apple's Siri, Google Now, Microsoft's Cortana and Amazon's Echo (Alexa). See virtual assistant, Big Data, driverless car, machine learning and expert system.

An Earlier Buzzword
Decades ago, the AI buzzword was very much abused as it referred to any and all advancements. However, the acid test of AI was defined in the 1940s by English scientist, Alan Turing, who said, "A machine has artificial intelligence when there is no discernible difference between the conversation generated by the machine and that of an intelligent person" (see Turing test). Question and answer dialog is already here and will continue to get better; however, a "real" conversation like the androids in the movies could take a very long time.

The Loebner Prize
In 1990, American inventor Hugh Loebner launched a competition and annual award for the chatbot that exhibits the most human-like responses. The competition will end when judges believe responses are from a human after interacting with the system via text, speech and images. See AGI, chatbot, social robot, computer generations, neural network, AI anxiety and Watson.

Artificial means Human
The term "intelligence" means processing capability; therefore, every computer is intelligent. However, artificial intelligence implies human-like intelligence. An ironic twist in terminology.

Shakey the Robot
Developed in 1969 by the Stanford Research Institute, Shakey was the first fully mobile robot with artificial intelligence. Seven feet tall, Shakey was named after its rather unstable movements. (Image courtesy of The Computer History Museum,

Forty-Four Years Later - Still a Bit Shaky
Funded by DARPA and made by Boston Dynamics, the 400-pound, 6'2" Atlas was designed for emergency rescue. Built in 2013, Atlas stumbled a lot in its first tests; however, teams of AI engineers are teaching Atlas to become very sophisticated. (Image courtesy of Boston Dynamics,
References in periodicals archive ?
Kaiser GC, Williams VL, Thurmann M, Hanlon CR: Valve replacement in cases of aortic insufficiency due to active endocarditis.
In obese treated with 15 mg, single (1/28) mild mitral valve regurgitation and 2 (2/28) mild aortic insufficiency were seen.
Aortic insufficiency is not nearly as common in acute aortic dissection as traditionally thought.
Use of the re-implantation technique in patients with severe aortic insufficiency remains controversial.
Traumatic injuries of heart reported before are atrioventricular valve insufficiency, aortic insufficiency, VSD, atrial septal defect, coronary artery injury, hemopericardium, cardiac rupture and cardiac contusion (3, 4).
Primary MAE endpoint: Prospective 30-day Post PCI includes: death, myocardial infarction, stroke, repeat revascularization (PCI/CABG), need for any cardiovascular operation, acute renal dysfunction, increase in aortic insufficiency, severe hypotension, CPR or arrhythmia requiring Trt, failure to adequately reopen the vessel.
Part C Aortic Insufficiency, 000 12 Pathology of aortic insufficiency, 000 13 Echocardiography of aortic insufficiency, 000 14 MRi of aortic insufficiency, 000 15 Surgical reconstruction of the aortic valve, 000
Aortic insufficiency resulting from annuloaortic ectasia and ascending aortic aneurysm together with aortic coarctation rarely occur, and surgical treatment is difficult.