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Reverse circulation of blood in the heart due to defective functioning of the valves.
Bringing back into the mouth undigested food from the stomach.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Many of the early materialization mediums were accused of fraud, with the explanation that the ectoplasm that they produced was, in fact, physical material that they had swallowed and then regurgitated. This theory was first propounded in 1922 by the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in the case of Eva C.. The medium Eva Carriere was visiting London and being investigated by the SPR. Professor Charles Richet said, “They [the SPR] admit that the only possible trickery is regurgitation. But what is meant by that? How can masses of mobile substance, organized as hands, faces, and drawings, be made to emerge from the oesophagus or the stomach? … How, when the medium’s hands are tied and held, could papers be unfolded, put away and made to pass through a veil?"

At a séance on November 26, 1913, conducted by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing, a strong emetic was given to Eva to answer the charge that the ectoplasm was actually regurgitated material. It satisfied the researchers that she had swallowed nothing. A number of experiments took place at Dr. Gustav Geley’s laboratories in 1917 and 1918. Nearly 150 scientists and others witnessed the sittings.

To state that the medium had “obviously regurgitated material” became a typical dismissal of a medium’s performance by a researcher either too lazy to fully investigate or too skeptical to accept what was being proven before his eyes. However, there certainly were fraudulent mediums who did swallow cheesecloth and similar material and attempt to regurgitate it to create an ectoplasmic effect. One such was Helen Duncan, who was examined by the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Following this, the Morning Post of July 14, 1931, carried an article claiming that Duncan had been caught out and exposed as a fraud. Researcher Harry Price called her “one of the cleverest frauds in the history of Spiritualism.” It transpired that the “ectoplasm” was in fact a composition of wood pulp and egg white, which she was able to swallow and then regurgitate. On July 17, the Light carried a followup article also branding her as a fraud and carrying a confession from her husband.


Fodor, Nandor: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. London: Arthurs Press, 1933
The International Survivalist Society:
Psychic News, #3754, June 19, 2004. Stansted, Essex
Leonard, Sue (ed): Quest For the Unknown—Life Beyond Death. Pleasantville: Reader’s Digest, 1992
The Spirit Book © 2006 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Combined use of imaging tools to improve the diagnosis has increased and the frequency of occlusion of branches of the aortic arch and incidence of moderate/severe aortic regurgitation has significantly decreased.
Nifedipine in asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation and normal left ventricular function.
Video 3: transoesophageal echocardiography showing excellent valve function with mild paravalvular aortic regurgitation in the deployed 31 mm Medtronic CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA).
KEYWORDS: Aortic regurgitation, Doubly committed sub-arterial (DCSA), Ventricular septal defect.
LV dysfunction is very rare in Mitral Stenosis and late feature in other lesions like Mitral regurgitation, Aortic regurgitation and Aortic stenosis.
The J-Valve Ausper TAVI System is designed to treat aortic regurgitation, as well as aortic stenosis.
The weight of this large occluder caused deformation of the aortic annulus, resulting in increased aortic regurgitation and enlargement of the left ventricle.
The patient had a significant medical history; she had been diagnosed (two years ago) with isolated systolic arterial hypertension grade 2, high cardiovascular risk, angina pectoris on efforts, atherosclerotic aortic valve disease (moderate aortic stenosis; moderate aortic regurgitation), moderate atherosclerotic mitral regurgitation and chronic heart failure class II NYHA (NEW YORK HEART ASSOCIATION).
Transthoracic echocardiography showed normal left ventricular systolic function, mild aortic regurgitation, and moderate tricuspid regurgitation.
Transthoracic 2D echocardiographic and Doppler examinations confirmed severe mitral stenosis with a mean diastolic pressure gradient of 22 mmHg, moderate aortic stenosis with a mean systolic pressure gradient of 37 mmHg and a valve area of 1.1 [cm.sup.2] by the continuity equation, mild mitral and aortic regurgitation, mild-to-moderate tricuspid regurgitation, and trivial pulmonic regurgitation.
The valve had four leaflets or cusps instead of the normal three-leaflet configuration and had associated mild to moderate aortic regurgitation, they added--which resembled, according to them, the outline of a four-leafed clover.