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ape,

any primateprimate,
member of the mammalian order Primates, which includes humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians, or lower primates. The group can be traced to the late Cretaceous period, where members were forest dwellers.
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 of the superfamily Hominoidea, which includes humans; this article, however, focuses on the nonhuman apes. The small apes, the gibbonsgibbon,
small ape, family Hylobatidae, found in the forests of SE Asia. The gibbons are known as the small, or lesser, apes; they are the most highly adapted of the apes to arboreal life. They are highly endangered because of habitat destruction.
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 and the siamang, and the orangutansorangutan
, an ape of the genus Pongo, found in rain forests of Borneo and Sumatra. Highly specialized for arboreal life, orangutans usually travel by grasping branches with hands and feet and moving from tree to tree. Adult males are about 4 1-2 ft (1.
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, which belong to the great apes, are found in SE Asia. The other great apes, the gorillasgorilla,
an ape, genus Gorilla, native to the lowland and mountain forests of western and central equatorial Africa. The two gorilla species are the western, comprising the western lowland (G. gorilla gorilla) and Cross River (G.
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 and the chimpanzeechimpanzee,
an ape, genus Pan, of the equatorial forests of central and W Africa. Smaller populations are also found in the savannas of the same regions. The common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, lives N of the Congo River.
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 and closely related bonobobonobo,
smaller of two species of chimpanzee, genus Pan. Whereas the common chimpanzee, P. troglodytes, lives in forests across most of equatorial Africa, the bonobo, P.
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 are found in Africa. The term ape was formerly and incorrectly applied to certain tailless monkeys. Ape and anthropoid ape are now used synonymously, although the common names of certain monkeys still contain the word ape; for example, the N African macaque is called the Barbary ape.

True apes vary in size from the 3–ft (90–cm), 15–lb (6.8–kg) gibbon to the 6–ft (1.8–m), 450–lb (200–kg) gorilla. All apes are forest dwellers and most spend at least some of the time in trees. Except for adult gorillas, they can run along branches on all fours; they are also able to move about by brachiation, or arm-over-arm swinging. Gibbons (including siamangs) are particularly adept at this type of locomotion; the heavier orangutans prefer to grasp a neighboring tree and pull itself across to it. Gorillas and chimpanzees are the most terrestrial of the apes, normally traveling on all fours by leaning on the knuckles of their forelimbs with the fingers of their hands curled under (knuckle-walking); orangutans ball their fingers into fists during the short periods they walk. Most apes are able to walk on two feet for short distances.

The skeleton of an ape is quite similar to that of a human in the structure of the chest and shoulders. Apes have broad, flat chests and arms capable of reaching up and backward from the shoulder; this construction is associated with brachiation. The pelvis, on the other hand, is more like that of a monkey, designed for walking on all fours, hence the use of knuckle-walking for ground locomotion. The arms of an ape are longer than the legs. The hands are similar to human hands, but with fingers and thumb of more equal length; the feet are handlike, grasping structures. Apes have neither tails nor the cheek pouches found in Old World monkeys; gibbons are the only apes that have the buttock callosities found in Old World monkeys. Like other anthropoid primates, the eyes are highly developed, with stereoscopic color vision. The brains of great apes are different from Old World monkeys and some structures are reminiscent of the uniquely elaborate features of the human cortex, rendering these primates capable of fairly advanced reasoning. Chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and gorillas have been observed using objects as tools in the wild.

Estimates of the amount of identical genetic material (DNA) in chimpanzees and humans range from 94.6% to 99.4%. This marked similarity, and additional evidence, have led primatologists to suggest that the taxonomy of the apes should include two families: Hylobatidae (gibbons and siamangs) and Hominidae (orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees and humans). Apes are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Primates.

Bibliography

See S. Montgomery, Walking with the Great Apes (1991).

Ape

 

a city in Aluksne Raion, Latvian SSR, located 177 km northeast of Riga, near the border of the Estonian SSR. Ape has a railroad station on the narrow-gauge Valga-Gulbene line. Population, 2,600 (1968). Industry consists of woodworking and food-processing. Ape arose in the second half of the 19th century and received the status of a city in 1928.

What does it mean when you dream about an ape?

As our closest animal relatives, apes can represent the natural, instinctual wisdom that most of us have lost, particularly if the dream animal is a gray-haired ape. We also sometimes associate simians (especially chimpanzees) with humor, and with the “chained up” animal self inside (e.g., King Kong). “Ape” can also mean to mimic.

ape

[āp]
(vertebrate zoology)
Any of the tailless primates of the families Hylobatidae and Pongidae in the same superfamily as humans.

ape

1. any of various primates, esp those of the family Pongidae (see anthropoid ape), in which the tail is very short or absent
2. any monkey

APE

(audio, compression)
A lossless audio compression algorithm from MonkeysAudio.

apE

(graphics)
A graphics package from the Ohio Supercomputer Centre.

APE

The file extension of a Monkey's Audio music file. See Monkey's Audio.
References in periodicals archive ?
I examined the australopithecine skeleton AL 288-1, which was on temporary display in Seattle, and tabulated which characters in the list exhibit the apelike state and which exhibit the humanlike state (Figures 1 and 2, Table 1).
century criminal anthropologists' descriptions of the "apelike
You are struck--first with the depressed forehead, squeezed over the eyebrows, as in the Cretins: then with the large, rolling inexpressive eye: then with the nose, innocent of a bridge--a great misshapen mass; then with the mouth, and the frightful animal formation of projecting jawbone, and gaping, black lips (red lips on the Moor [...] is a European fancy which reality does not sanction); then with the long-fingered, apelike hands, and hideous, colorless nails; then with the meagre spindleshanks and projecting heel: then, and most of all, with the incredible animalism of the whole thing, form and expression combined.
According to one theory, our apelike ancestors first communicated through hand gestures.
The alternative was to remain outside the realm of whiteness, as the Irish were when, in New York, African Americans were derogatorily called "smoked Irish," and the Irish were depicted, as blacks also were, as apelike. (3) The Irish became accepted as white decades ago.
In illustrations, Tutivillus often appears as a writing monkey or as "apelike," being described as "in specie symee" or "quasi vultu simie." (43) But whether appearing as a vain devil with a ridiculously large black head or as a simian devil imitating monks and collecting the idle Latin words of slothful believers, Tutivillus was decidedly a fool "aping" flawed Christians.
In Boston and other strongholds of Anglo-Protestantism, the immigrant Irish were pictured in cartoons and popular rhetoric as if they were another inferior race, dark, low-browed and apelike.
Most arose at a time when the apelike creatures which later evolved into humans and chimpanzees numbered only about 10, 000.
(12) In articles, Johnson was demeaned by his portrayal with stereotypical slave-like speech, and in cartoon characterizations with exaggerated apelike features.
Charles Howard-Bury from Tullamore brought home tales of the apelike creature after he led the first Everest expedition in 1921.
In one of London's last publications, a 1916 magazine account of his Klondike and South Sea days, he boasts of his "sour-dough degree" and of the honorary title "skipper" purportedly bestowed on him by an "apelike, headhunting cannibal" with a bone in his nose.
Their apelike crouching and cavorting references to martial arts intersected several modern lineages.