aphid


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aphid

or

plant louse,

tiny, usually green, soft-bodied, pear-shaped insect injurious to vegetation. It is also called greenfly and blight. Aphids are mostly under 1-4 in. (6 mm) long. Some are wingless; others have two pairs of transparent or colored wings, the front pair longer than the hind pair. In typical aphids (family Aphididae), two tubes called cornicles project from the rear of the abdomen and exude protective substances. Aphids feed by inserting their beaks into stems, leaves, or roots, and sucking the plant juices. Usually they gather in large colonies.

The life cycle of aphids is complex and varies in different species. In a typical life cycle, several generations of wingless females, which reproduce asexually (see parthenogenesisparthenogenesis
[Gr.,=virgin birth], in biology, a form of reproduction in which the ovum develops into a new individual without fertilization. Natural parthenogenesis has been observed in many lower animals (it is characteristic of the rotifers), especially insects, e.g.
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) and bear live offspring, are followed by a generation of winged females, which bears a sexually reproducing, egg-laying generation of males and females. Mating usually occurs in fall, and the eggs are laid in crevices of the twigs of the host plant; the first generation of wingless females hatches in spring. Different host plants and different parts of the plant may be used at different stages of the life cycle.

Some aphids (e.g., the woolly apple aphid) secrete long strands of waxy material from wax glands, forming a conspicuous woolly coating for their colonies. Gall-making aphids live in gallsgall,
abnormal growth, or hypertrophy, of plant tissue produced by chemical or mechanical (e.g., the rubbing together of two branches) irritants or hormones. Chemical irritants are released by parasitic fungi, bacteria, nematode worms, gall insects, and mites.
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, or swellings of plant tissue, formed by the plant as a reaction to substances secreted by the insects; galls of different aphid species are easily identified (e.g., the cockscomb gall of elm leaves). One group of aphids lives only on conifers (e.g., the eastern spruce gall aphid).

Ant Cows

Many kinds of aphid secrete a sweet substance called honeydew, prized as food by ants, flies, and bees. This substance consists of partially digested, highly concentrated plant sap and other wastes, and is excreted from the anus, often in copious amounts. Certain aphid species have a symbiotic relationship with various species of ants that resembles the relationship of domestic cattle to humans; hence the name "ant cows" for aphids. The ants tend the aphids, transporting them to their food plants at the appropriate stages of the aphids' life cycle and sheltering the aphid eggs in their nests during the winter. The aphids, in turn, provide honeydew for the ants.

Damage to Plants

The damage done by aphids is due to a number of causes, including loss of sap, clogging of leaf surfaces with honeydew, and growth of molds and fungi on the honeydew. Leaf curl, a common symptom of aphid infestation, occurs when a colony attacks the underside of a leaf, causing its desiccation. The downward curl provides protection for the colony, but the leaf becomes useless to the plant. Some species also transmit viral diseases of plants. Among the aphids causing serious damage to food crops are the grain, cabbage, cornroot, apple, woolly apple, and hickory aphids and the alder and beech tree blights. The phylloxeraphylloxera
, small, sap-eating, greenish insect of the genus Phylloxera, closely related to the aphid. Phylloxeras feed on leaves and roots, and many species produce galls on deciduous trees.
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, notorious for its damage to vineyards, is closely related to the aphids.

Many larger insects that feed on aphids, such as ladybird beetles and lacewings, are used as biological controls of aphid infestations. Fungal infection and damp weather also help limit the number of aphids.

Classification

Aphids are classified in several families of the phylum ArthropodaArthropoda
[Gr.,=jointed feet], largest and most diverse animal phylum. The arthropods include crustaceans, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, scorpions, and the extinct trilobites.
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, class Insecta, order Homoptera.

aphid

[ā·fəd]
(invertebrate zoology)
The common name applied to the soft-bodied insects of the family Aphididae; they are phytophagous plant pests and vectors for plant viruses and fungal parasites.

aphid

any of the small homopterous insects of the family Aphididae, which feed by sucking the juices from plants
References in periodicals archive ?
Wang, "Developing an aphid damage hyperspectral index for detecting aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) damage levels in winter wheat," in Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS '11), pp.
Two hot spots of Aphid and one hot spot of Thrips were reported from Layyah.
One hot spot of white fly, three hot spots of Aphid and a hot spot of armyworm were reported from Muzaffargarh.
Field experiment was conducted at the farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I.Khan to establish integrated pest management strategy for the control of aphid in canola crop.
The results of our studies indicated that allelopathic water extracts caused a considerable mortality (> 50%) in cabbage aphid populations at 24 h after application.
Table 2, Developmental period of Coccinella transvarsalis Fabricius reared on Akk aphid, phis nerii under laboratory conditions.
None of the oils at the used concentrations was as toxic as Actara insecticide did in reducing the populations of beach-potato aphid. However, these oils showed variability in controlling the aphid.
Development of aphid resistant host plant is considered as an effective, economic and sustainable method for management of aphid (A.
Sublethal effects of a neurotoxic insecticide on the oviposition behavior and the patch-time allocation in two aphid parasitoids, Diaeretiella rapae and Aphidius matricariae.
The dominance of aphidophagous hoverflies is examined over the green aphid (Myzus persicae) colonies on brassica crop, viz., the occurrence and abundance of aphidophagous hoverflies is linked with ecological factors and host plants (Barrett and Helenum, 1987).Numerous features govern the process of oviposition and selection of oviposition site i.e.