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monitor, in zoology
monitor, type of warship
(Varanidae), a family of reptiles of the lizard suborder. It is represented now by only one living genus, Varanus. The body is elongated, and the legs are well developed; the tail in many species is compressed from the sides. The head is covered with tiny scuta; the scales of the trunk are rounded and protruding. The tongue is long and deeply cleft at the tip. There are 24 species, distributed in tropical, subtropical, and partly temperate regions of the eastern hemisphere; they are absent from Madagascar.
Monitors inhabit open places overgrown with shrubbery; many keep to the banks of rivers and other fresh-water bodies. They swim and dive well and can run rapidly. Monitors are predators and feed on lizards, snakes, and small mammals. They raid birds’ nests and eat large insects and other arthropods. The species that live near water feed mainly on frogs, fish, crabs, mollusks, and other water creatures. The desert monitor (V. griseus), a characteristic inhabitant of the desert also known as the zem-zem, is widespread in North Africa and southwestern Asia (as far east as northwest India), and also in the USSR—in Turkmenia, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and southern Kazakhstan. Desert monitors are 1.5 m long, with pinkish-sandy coloration on top and broad brown transverse stripes on the back and tail. They settle in the burrows of other animals, more rarely digging their own. Sexual maturity comes no earlier than the third year of life. The female lays 10-20 eggs and buries them in sand. On the small island of Komodo and three adjacent islands, located east of the island of Java, lives the largest of contemporary monitors, the Komodo dragon, which attains a length of 3.7 m and weighs up to 100 kg. Giant forms (genus Megalania), up to 10 m in length, have been found in the Pleistocene deposits of Australia. Monitor leather is used for various products, including footwear; the meat is used as food in many countries.
REFERENCESTerent’ev, P. V. Gerpetologiia. Moscow, 1961.
Mertens, R. Die Familie der Warane (Varanidae), vols. 1-3. Frankfurt am Main, 1942-43. (Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, nos. 462, 465, 466.)
S. A. CHERNOV and N. V. SHIBANOV
an older student who served as an assistant teacher in schools using the monitorial system (also known as the Bell-Lancaster or Lancasterian system).
The monitorial system existed in Great Britain, the USA, France, Switzerland, Belgium, and Russia at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries. (SeeMONITORIAL SYSTEM.)
an American warship designed by the Swedish engineer J. Ericsson and built by the US federal government in 1861–62.
The Monitor was a flat-bottomed armorclad ship with a length of 56.4 m, beam of 12.5 m, draft of 3.6 m, elevation above water of 61 cm, displacement of 1,250 tons, and 130-mm side armor; it was equipped with two 280-mm guns in a revolving turret. On Mar. 9, 1862, during the Civil War in the USA (1861–65), the Monitor forced the Southern ironclad Merrimack to withdraw during a fierce battle in Hampton Roads. The battle pointed up the weakness of the artillery of that time against heavy armor, which led to the strengthening of ship artillery. The Monitor was the prototype of the monitor class of ships.
a class of armored surface ships having artillery and designed to conduct warfare with coast artillery, to destroy enemy ships in coastal waters and in rivers, and to strike at armored, concrete, and other kinds of targets along the coast.
The term “monitor” was derived from the name of the American armored ship Monitor. The monitors built after World War I (1914–18) had a water displacement of about 8,000 tons and a speed of 8–15 knots and were armed with two or three guns of a caliber of up to 381 mm installed in turrets and as many as eight guns of a caliber of 102–120 mm; the thickness of the armor was between 102 and 330 mm; the small draft permitted them to come close to the shore. Monitors were used until World War II (1939–45), especially in rivers. After the war all countries stopped building monitors.
monitor, monitor roof
ii. To keep track of an airborne aircraft by radar and to transmit to it necessary flight information to ensure its safe operation or guidance.
iii. To keep check on a communication channel or network to maintain or improve communication service.
See also gamut, multisync, visual display unit.
Unix man page: monitor(3).
monitor(1) A display screen that provides visual output from a computer, cable box, camera or other video-generating device. The two predominant screen technologies are LCD and OLED. See display standards, LCD, OLED, analog monitor, digital monitor and flat panel display.
(2) Software that observes the activities within a computer system. See computer monitoring.
(3) Hardware that gathers performance statistics via direct attachment to a CPU's circuit boards. See network analyzer.
(4) Firmware in a hardware device that provides control functions such as setting communications parameters. The monitor resides in a ROM or flash memory chip.