LDLs containing only apoB-100
were shown to bind to cell-surface receptors on fibroblasts, known as the LDL receptor (LDLR) (11).
It reduces the rate of apoB-100
synthesis, thereby reducing the VLDL concentration which is risk factor for atherosclerosis.
Huff, "The molecular mechanisms underlying the reduction of LDL apoB-100
by ezetimibe plus simvastatin," Journal of Lipid Research, vol.
There are two forms of the ApoB protein, apoB-100
and apoB-48, resulting from tissue-specific alternative splicing.
ApoB gene expresses in two isoforms as ApoB-48 in chylomicron and ApoB-100
in the liver.
Oxidative modifications of apoB-100
by exposure of low density lipoproteins to HOCL in vitro.
They include LDL ("bad") cholesterol that can clog arteries, HDL ("good") cholesterol that can help remove LDL molecules, and triglycerides, as well as ApoB-100
, Lp-PLA-2 and others.
Due to the extremely cationic character, MPO can easily bind to the negatively charged structures, that is, bacteria, endothelial cells, cytokeratin-1, polyanionic matrix glycosaminoglycans, apolipoproteins apoA-1 and apoB-100
, ceruloplasmin, [alpha]1-antitrypsin, and albumin .
(18) As a consequence, insulin inhibits hepatic secretion of VLDL-TG and apoB-100
Supplemented patients also had a significant decline in concentrations of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100
), a marker of LDL particle number and a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
* DNA-based confirmation of an LDLR mutation, familial defective ApoB-100
, or a mutation in the PCSK9 gene.