Apocrine carcinoma as triple-negative breast cancer: novel definition of apocrine-type carcinoma as oestrogen/progesterone receptor negative and androgen receptor positive, invasive ductal carcinoma.
Invasive apocrine carcinoma of the breast: a long-term followup study of 34 cases.
Apocrine differentiation in invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma with in situ ductal and lobular apocrine carcinoma: a case report.
Although in daily diagnostic practice, it may be difficult to assess, Seidman et al (10(p2351)) point out that "a nucleus that has a diameter of 1.73 times a neighboring nucleus has an area 3 times this nucleus." In addition, they highlight that the most striking atypical feature is the nucleolar enlargement, not the nucleolar prominence per se, because distinct nucleoli are almost invariably present in apocrine change, and markedly pleomorphic enlarged nuclei are usually present in apocrine carcinomas. (10) Nuclear hyperchromasia and irregularities of the nuclear membrane may be affected by fixation artifacts, stain intensity, and section thickness; hence, they are not always reliable features.
 Prognosis of apocrine carcinoma
of breast is similar to and that of the glycogen rich and sebaceous carcinoma is worse than invasive ductal carcinomas.
as triple-negative breast cancer: novel definition of apocrine-type carcinoma as estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative and androgen receptor-positive invasive ductal carcinoma.
Also identified were 2 cases (4%) of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 2 cases (4%) of sebaceous carcinomas, and rare cases (n = 1 each) of apocrine carcinoma
, spiradenocarcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma (2% each).
The tumor cells may show prominent granular eosinophilic cytoplasm focally and higher nuclear grade, resembling apocrine carcinoma
Oestrogen receptor-beta1 but not oestrogen receptor-betacx is of prognostic value in apocrine carcinoma
of the breast.
The tumor cells of the case of invasive apocrine carcinoma
had abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and large atypical nuclei and were arranged in tubular structures infiltrating fibrous tissue (Figure 12).
In our study, the mean age of patients with histological types of breast cancer were >55 years except in cases of apocrine carcinomas
. The genetic background and low number of cases in our study might be the reason for the difference among those different types of carcinomas.