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(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

An apologist is one who speaks or writes in defense of a faith or cause. The term has come to be used to describe a group of second-century Church fathers who wrote letters defending the new faith of Christianity.

The earliest of them is unknown, although his apology, To Diognetus, still survives. Perhaps the most well known of the early apologists is Justin (c. 100-c. 165), whose death for the faith earned him the name Justin Martyr. Tertullian (c. 155 or 160-c. 225) is still remembered for his work, Apology.

The importance of these works is that historians, by studying them, can learn about the early objections to Christianity as well as the manner in which educated members of the church responded to them. This leads to an understanding of how Christian theology evolved through the very act of responding to early criticism.

The Religion Book: Places, Prophets, Saints, and Seers © 2004 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a collective term for the early Christian writers, primarily of the second and third centuries (the period during which the Christians were persecuted by Roman authorities), who defended the principles of Christianity against the criticism of non-Christian philosophers (Jews and “pagans”).

The most important apologists included the Easterners (who wrote in Greek) Quadratus, Aristides, Justin Martyr, Tatian, Athenagoras, Theophilus of Antioch, Melito of Sar-dis, and Origen; and the Westerners (who wrote in Latin) Tertullian and Minucius Felix. The apologists laid the foundation for Christian theology, especially Theophilus and Tertullian, who introduced the term “trinity.”

With the transition of Christianity to the status of a state religion (fourth century), when it became unnecessary to defend Christianity against paganism, apologetic literature gradually disappeared and was replaced by polemical works directed against heresies. The last apologist was Theodoret of Cyrrhus, who wrote in the fifth century, a time when paganism was already practically powerless.

Sometimes the term apologists is also applied to the medieval polemicists against Islam and Judaism.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Underlying the opinions expressed, many of which are subjective, it would appear that he is trying to suggest that the 'apologists' (the way he refers to Jews) as well as the international Zionists, (most of whom are obviously Jewish) are the real threat to the world - a regurgitation of the virulent anti-Semitism of the not so distant past, the spectre of which seems to have raised its head yet again.
But we are our company's conscience--the apologist for stakeholders who do not have a voice and the sober second thought.
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The apologist aims to reassure believers that modern doubts are wrong, that ancient supernaturalism is true, and that all is well inside the Amish Paradise.
From the formidable, witty, quintessentially aristocratic Marquise du Deffand, the unconventional and independent Dutch-born Madame de Charriere, the passionately revolutionary Manon Roland, the peaceful Madame de Remusat, on to the women who defied society's anathema against women writers and righters in the 19th century, Germaine de Stael, George Sand, and the suffragette Hubertine Auclert, and, in a stark contrast, Colette, the apologist of sensual pleasures, opposed to the self-sacrificial social and political activist Simone Weil, and, finally, the acclaimed feminist theorist Simone de Beauvoir, Ozouf produces a rich array of characters, personalities and lives in which to track ways in which French women experienced, conceptualized, and problematized femininity over the centuries.
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explains that Plantinga, more an epistemologist than an apologist, has preferred negative apologetics (arguments against those who challenge belief) to positive apologetics (arguments aimed at persuading others to believe).