Treatment with sand had the lowest value for both the number of carpogenic germinated sclerotia as well as the number of apothecia
formed (Figure 2).
The squamules can be convex, concave or convoluted, erect and elongated or flat and [+ or -] distinctly peltate, brown, olivaceous or blackish, matt, glossy or often covered by a bluish white pruina; the apothecia
remain completely immersed or are secondarily raised above the thallus surface and then surrounded by a thalline margin.
immersed in the thallus or sessile, scattered, rarely in groups (2-3), (0.18-)0.2-0.6(-2.5) mm diam.; disc dark red, epruinose, thalline margin poorly developed, thin, entire, smooth to weakly crenulate.
Thallus yellow, lobed, continuous, but mostly around apothecia
, apothecial disk and margin yellow; spores 9-13 [micro]m x 5.5-7.0 [micro]m, isthmus 3.5-4.5 [micro]m Caloplaca subsoluta 4.
A pan-emperate corticolous lichen with small, black to sordid or mottled apothecia
were obtained using the method described for the previous test, with the modification of using only five gerboxes.
Thallus thin, greenish to gray; apothecia
with algal cells, with a thalloid margin, the rim concolorous with the disk; spores ovoid, constricted at septum Amandinea dakotensis 1.
Description.--Fruiting bodies: Apothecia
, sessile or with a rudimentary stipe, 1-8 cm broad, cup-shaped; inner (upper or hymenial) surface bright scarlet, outer (lower) surface white and floccose with matted hairs; margin generally inrolled.
The similar apothecia
of both species can lead to confusion.
White mold infections in bean are typically initiated during flowering, coinciding with the closure of the plant canopy and the development of apothecia
from soil-borne sclerotial bodies (Boland and Hall, 1987).
adspersum has clavate asci, larger spores and usually much shorter and stouter apothecia
, which do not have a brown but a yellow pruina on the lower side (Table 1).
Favorable conditions for the formation of apothecia
, the corresponding onset of flowering for inoculation via ascospores, and appropriate temperatures following infection are critical components of the epidemiology of S.