Appetite

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Appetite

 

a pleasant sensation associated with the need for food; also, a physiological mechanism regulating the intake of food substances into the organism. After long deprivation of food, appetite becomes the sensation of hunger.

Appetite is closely related to the activity of the feeding center, primarily those parts of the feeding center located in the hypothalamus and in the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. Appetite is determined by information coming to the feeding center about nutritive conditions, the intake and assimilation of food, and the consumption of food reserves. Appetite is not caused by the exhaustion of the organism’s food reserves; rather, appetite gives warning beforehand of the exhaustion of food reserves, so that the many stimuli that make up the appetite can change their signals in accordance with a change in the dietary regimen. Stimulation of the appetite depends on the amount of products of intermediary metabolism in the blood, the level of assimilation of these products by the cells, the amount of water in the tissues, the condition of the fat reserves, the contraction of the empty stomach, the lowering of body temperature, and the many external stimuli associated with conditioned reflex activity (the appearance and odor of food, habitual surroundings, and others). Inhibition of the appetite results from eating, distension of the walls of the stomach by food, absorption and assimilation of the products of digestion, and change in the hormonal balance.

General appetite, that is, appetite for any food, is distinguished from specialized or selective forms of appetite which reflect the organism’s need for proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral substances, and vitamins. Appetite makes possible the regulation of the need for specific foods in quantities required by the organism. It also promotes the digestion and assimilation of food by stimulating the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. A good appetite is often a sign of physical and mental well-being. Disorders of the appetite are symptomatic of many diseases. A decrease in appetite (anorexia), a pathological increase in appetite (bulimia), or perverted appetite may be found in cases of brain tumors, many nervous and psychological disorders, diseases of the digestive tract, avitaminosis, and endocrine diseases. Normalization of appetite depends on treatment of the basic disease and observance of the proper dietary regimen.

REFERENCES

Anokhin, P. K. “Uzlovye voprosy ν izuchenii vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti.” In Problemy vysshei nervnoi deiatel’nosti. Moscow, 1949.
Ugolev, A. M., and V. G. Kassil’. “Fiziologiia appetita.” Uspekhi sovremennoi biologii, 1961, vol. 51, issue 3.
Ugolev, A. M., and V.G. Kassil’. “Pishchevoe povedenie i reguliat-siia gomeostaza.” In Slozhnye formy povedeniia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Chernigovskii, V. N. Znachenie interotseptivnoi signalizatsii ν pishchevom povedenii zhivotnykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.

V. G. KASSIL’ and A. M. UGOLEV

References in classic literature ?
I told you it was an unnatural appetite," answered Colin.
And once more, when he tried to eat his breakfast, his appetite completely failed him!
Leaving a note for Arthur Barville, on his arrival in Venice, in which he merely mentioned that he had gone to look at the Italian lakes, and that a line addressed to his hotel at Milan would bring him back again, he took the afternoon train to Padua-- and dined with his usual appetite, and slept as well as ever that night.
Pass judgment on your chivalries, senor," returned Sancho, "and don't set yourself up to judge of other men's fears or braveries, for I am as good a fearer of God as my neighbours; but leave me to despatch these skimmings, for all the rest is only idle talk that we shall be called to account for in the other world;" and so saying, he began a fresh attack on the bucket, with such a hearty appetite that he aroused Don Quixote's, who no doubt would have helped him had he not been prevented by what must be told farther on.
The reader will easily believe, that from what I had hear and seen, my keen appetite for perpetuity of life was much abated.
He ate, it is true, and with a relish; but it was always with the moderation with which age is apt to temper the appetite.
His more tempered appetite was already satisfied, and he faced the new comer with a look of cordiality, that plainly evinced how very opportune he considered his arrival.
I have watched the habits of the animal, young man; and can fearlessly pronounce, by evidence that would be thrown away on ordinary observers, that it is of vast dimensions, inactive, possibly torpid, of voracious appetite, and, as it now appears by the direct testimony of this venerable hunter, ferocious and carnivorous
Just in time for the holidays, Appetites and Evan teach you in this exciting new step-by-step video app, showcasing 20 original pie recipes including detailed instruction on making the perfect crusts.
And young mice receiving twice-daily injections of the hormone over a week showed suppressed appetites and far less weight gain than untreated rodents did.
Researchers think that the hormone, urocortin, may be what causes people and animals to lose their appetites when they are under stress or in danger and survival might depend on running away or fighting rather than stopping for a snack.
President of Mosaic Nutraceuticals, Charlie Townsend said, "We are committed to the safe use of this candy chew as an assist to people seeking to control their appetites and lose weight safely and naturally.