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system of learning a craft or trade from one who is engaged in it and of paying for the instruction by a given number of years of work. The practice was known in ancient Babylon, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, as well as in modern Europe and to some extent in the United States. Typically, in medieval Europe, a master craftsman agreed to instruct a young man, to give him shelter, food, and clothing, and to care for him during illness. The apprentice would bind himself to work for the master for a given time. After that time he would become a journeyman, working for a master for wages, or he set up as a master himself. The medieval guildsguilds
or gilds,
economic and social associations of persons engaging in the same business or craft, typical of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Membership was by profession or craft, and the primary function was to establish local control over that profession or
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 supervised the relation of master and apprentice and decided the number of apprentices in a given guild. The Industrial Revolution, with its introduction of machinery, put an end to most of these guilds, but apprenticeship continues in highly skilled trades, at times competing with vocational training schools (see vocational educationvocational education,
training designed to advance individuals' general proficiency, especially in relation to their present or future occupations. The term does not normally include training for the professions.
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The terms of apprenticeship are regulated by many labor agreements as well as by law. The U.S. system of apprenticeships, established in 1937, is modeled on a 1911 Wisconsin law that named 200 occupations that benefited from apprenticeship programs. Some, such as plumbing and carpentry, required a mandatory apprenticeship period. The passage of the Manpower Development and Training Act in 1962 further encouraged apprenticeship programs. In Great Britain apprenticeship programs sometimes include outside schooling at company expense. The apprenticeship programs in continental Europe today differ from those in Great Britain and the United States by offering training in a wide range of fields, not just the skilled crafts.


See A. Beveridge, Apprenticeship Now (1963); N. F. Duffy, ed., Essays on Apprenticeship (1967); P. Mapp, Women in Apprenticeship (1973).


References in periodicals archive ?
In the past five years they claim to have secured PS40m for 5,500 apprenticeships and are now pledging to create 50,000 apprenticeships using Wales' share of the new Apprenticeship Levy.
Sean Williams is part of a team of 'Apprenticeship Ambassadors' selected by the Welsh Government to promote the benefits of undertaking an apprenticeship, in the run-up to National Apprenticeship Week.
THE number of apprenticeships in Birmingham has jumped by almost a quarter, Government data shows.
The National Apprenticeship Awards, which are run by the National Apprenticeship Service, recognise excellence in businesses that grow their own skilled workforce through apprentices.
If you are over 16 and not in full-time education, you can apply for an apprenticeship.
is annual event is co-ordinated by the National Apprenticeship Service and is all about getting more small businesses to take on apprentices, promoting the range of apprenticeships on oer including those at higher level and within Blue Chip companies.
uk for details about what is going on in your area for Apprenticeship Week and to find out more about apprenticeships.
Now in its seventh year, the initiative, which runs between March 3 and March 7, is co-ordinated by the National Apprenticeship Service.
Here in Liverpool I have seen some fantastic apprenticeship programmes.
M2 EQUITYBITES-May 17, 2012-Six-month apprenticeship schemes need to be longer, MPs say(C)2012 M2 COMMUNICATIONS http://www.
Thankfully there have been many changes to the running of apprenticeships over the years, the most recent being the formation of new organisation the National Apprenticeship Service which launched in April 2009.
Labor of Innocents: Forced Apprenticeship in North Carolina, 1715-1919.