Winged male Apterous
male reproductive reproductive success success Female Experiment Trial phenotype obs exp obs exp 1 1 winged 7 4 1 4 1 2 apterous
6 4 2 4 Experiment [chi square] df p 1 4.50 1 0.03 1 2.00 1 0.15 Table 3.
It also was described long ago (for Orthoptera: Chopard 1938), that high-altitude insects typically have reduced wings, or are totally apterous
, like the Nubimystrix females.
Percent population for alate aphids was 15.9% and apterous
Plants were infested in the two- to three-leaf stage with five apterous
adults of GBI or the new isolate per plant.
2): small, apterous
, striped longitudinally in black and white or yellow or iridescent pale green, with an orange-red tip to the abdomen, a dark blue and black head, and pale blue thoracic pleura.
Subsequently, 140 apterous
adult aphids were released (following 1 h starvation) per pot (20 individuals per plant).
and atympanate insects.
Twenty newly-moulted apterous
cabbage aphid females, collected from canola, were put in the plastic vials.
Clone size in solitary and cohabiting crescent galls was practically identical until late summer: the second generation of apterous
aphids ([F.sub.3]), which were born in May-June, was not affected by the presence of cohabiting spherical galls.
Toxicity bioassays were conducted with apterous
adult aphids by using the leaf dip method (Han et al.
There are numerous apterous
(without wings) non reproductive soldiers and workers in termite colony.
It is worth noting that all the herbivore species used to test the local adaptation hypothesis exhibit relatively low mobility (scale insects and apterous