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the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production. Formerly a business for small farms, it is now also pursued by large agribusinesses, and by the mid-2010s it had become as significant a source of fish as the as wild fisheriesfisheries.
From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long taken cod,
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Successful aquaculture takes into consideration the biology of the aquatic species (feeding, water flow and temperature needs, disease prevention) and engineering design (water source and water quality study, pond and tank containment systems, water filtration and aeration) as well as issues pertinent to any business. Common products of aquaculture are catfish, tilapia (St. Peter's fish), trout, crawfish, oysters, shrimp, and salmon, and tropical fish for aquariums. Caviar from farm-raised sturgeon is one of the more expensive and exotic aquacultural products. Some are raised in huge freshwater tanks or ponds; others require the running water of rivers or streams. Saltwater species are often raised in saltwater ponds, in enclosed bays, or in pens placed in coastal or deeper sea waters.

There are potential environmental problems associated with aquaculture. Most of the fish that are raised are genetically altered or hybridized for quick growth. If they escape into the wild, they compete against and can crowd out smaller or less voracious native fish. Confined fish can become a breeding ground for diseases or pests, which can be transmitted in some cases to wild fish; confinement also makes the fish more suspectible to attacks by some naturally occurring pests, such as some species of jellyfish, that would be less likely to trouble dispersed wild fish. In addition, the large amounts of water that are used in aquaculture become laden with fish feces and unconsumed food that, if not removed through treatment or used as agricultural fertilizer, can add injurious amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to a river or stream when the water is returned to it. Development of improved recirculating-tank technologies, however, may lead to a reduction in such pollution threats, as well as the spread of aquaculture to areas where large volumes of water are not available in the environment (see also aquaponicsaquaponics,
the growing of plants and the raising of fish by combining aquaculture with the techniques of hydroponics, usually on a small scale. Water containing fish waste matter is used as the nutrient solution for the plants being raised; the plants help clean the water that
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The practice of aquaculture dates back to 1000 B.C. in China. It is growing worldwide, in part in response to overfishing and the deterioration of the world's fisheries and concerns about the effects of pollution on seafood. In the United States, aquaculture is also a response to the increased demand for fish and shellfish as a result of changes in the nation's eating habits.


See M. Landau, Introduction to Aquaculture (1992).


References in periodicals archive ?
It proposes major improvements in finfish containment policy -- getting aquaculturists to reduce the numbers of fish escaping from pens.
Farmer organizations, linked with medium to large investors, are needed to get aquaculture off the ground in Sri Lanka's Mahaweli area, according to a report by Lisa Krynen, an Australian volunteer aquaculturist retained to study the industry's problems.
and closer to the Equator, where the aquaculturist has far greater opportunity for on-going profitability for a whole host of reasons," Smiley told conference delegates.
From the viewpoint of a harvester or aquaculturist, an infected oyster with fast growth may reach market size before dermo disease kills it.
Registered abalone aquaculturist in north of Chile.
DAGUPAN CITY, Philippines Two outstanding Filipino aquaculturists were honored at the Asian Fisheries Academy (AFA) by the Society of Aquaculture Engineers of the Philippines Inc.
This has caused dismay among many biologists, aquaculturists, and other stakeholders with an interest in the Pacific and other oysters.
importance for shellfish aquaculturists because if the water does not
The remaining key points of the 28th JCETC included a call for an exchange of notes on the operational procedures to use China's concessional loans to support Philippine government projects, Chinese grants for the construction of two bridges over the Pasig River and conduct of capacity building programs for rice experts and aquaculturists.
That's a good example of technology and innovation coming to the rescue, but Naam might have mentioned that aquaculturists enjoy property rights, and that capture fisheries can be protected and restored by giving people who use them property rights as well.
1-2 (providing, in Canadian statute, for priority over secured creditors of claims by unpaid suppliers, farmers, fishermen and aquaculturists under defined circumstances); id.