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the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production. Formerly a business for small farms, it is now also pursued by large agribusinesses, and by the mid-2010s it had become as significant a source of fish as the as wild fisheriesfisheries.
From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long taken cod,
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Successful aquaculture takes into consideration the biology of the aquatic species (feeding, water flow and temperature needs, disease prevention) and engineering design (water source and water quality study, pond and tank containment systems, water filtration and aeration) as well as issues pertinent to any business. Common products of aquaculture are catfish, tilapia (St. Peter's fish), trout, crawfish, oysters, shrimp, and salmon, and tropical fish for aquariums. Caviar from farm-raised sturgeon is one of the more expensive and exotic aquacultural products. Some are raised in huge freshwater tanks or ponds; others require the running water of rivers or streams. Saltwater species are often raised in saltwater ponds, in enclosed bays, or in pens placed in coastal or deeper sea waters.

There are potential environmental problems associated with aquaculture. Most of the fish that are raised are genetically altered or hybridized for quick growth. If they escape into the wild, they compete against and can crowd out smaller or less voracious native fish. Confined fish can become a breeding ground for diseases or pests, which can be transmitted in some cases to wild fish; confinement also makes the fish more suspectible to attacks by some naturally occurring pests, such as some species of jellyfish, that would be less likely to trouble dispersed wild fish. The food fed to the fish raised in aquaculture facilities may include fishmeal and fish oil derived from fish stocks in marine ecosystems, in some cases byproducts of processing wild caught fish, but in other cases wild caught fish, potentially undermining marine fisheres. In addition, the large amounts of water that are used in freshwater aquaculture become laden with fish feces and unconsumed food that, if not removed through treatment or used as agricultural fertilizer, can add injurious amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to a river or stream when the water is returned to it. Development of improved recirculating-tank technologies, however, may lead to a reduction in such pollution threats, as well as the spread of aquaculture to areas where large volumes of water are not available in the environment (see also aquaponicsaquaponics,
the growing of plants and the raising of fish by combining aquaculture with the techniques of hydroponics, usually on a small scale. Water containing fish waste matter is used as the nutrient solution for the plants being raised; the plants help clean the water that
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The practice of aquaculture dates back to 1000 B.C. in China. It is growing worldwide, in part in response to overfishing and the deterioration of the world's fisheries and concerns about the effects of pollution on seafood. In the United States, aquaculture is also a response to the increased demand for fish and shellfish as a result of changes in the nation's eating habits.


See M. Landau, Introduction to Aquaculture (1992).

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McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although this is a book on a Canadian controversy, aquafarming is a global issue, since the characteristic features of the Canadian aquaculture industry are a product of the multiple political and cultural influences of the global economy.
In Kurru Pattapupalem village, also in Nellore district, drinking water sources for 600 fishermen's families "have been irreparably salted thanks to an aquafarming project which has come up in the neighborhood," the paper charged.
Indaqua offers an ocean of offers and a rare insight into the intriguing world of aquaculture * A major exhibition of aquafarming * A meeting place of technologists,
Dubai: The UAE aims to boost the current local aquafarming industry output of about one per cent to 25 per cent by 2021 to contribute to the country's food security and eventually replenish the marine resources to address the problem of declining local fish stocks.
This was revealed on Wednesday during the launch of the first Aqua Middle East Conference and Exhibition that will be held from March 16 to 18 in Dubai and hosted by the Ministry of Environment and Water, in partnership with the world's two biggest aquafarming companies in Norway and Chile.
Aquafarming or aquaculture is the process of breeding, rearing, and harvesting of plants and certain types of marine animals such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and the like.
Fu'ad bin Ja'afar al-Sajwani, Agriculture and Fisheries Minister today announced investment in aquafarming by opening the door to receive applications from individuals and specialized companies interested in utilizing the promising investment opportunities in this sector.