arbutin


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arbutin

[är′byüt·ən]
(organic chemistry)
C12H16O7 A bitter glycoside from the bearberry and certain other plants; sometimes used as a urinary antiseptic.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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In contrast, although N1 was ineffective against extracellular melanogenesis at the highest tested concentration (500 [micro]g/ml), a 50% inhibition was observed by sample N2 at a concentration of 47.83 [micro]g/ml, which was more effective compared to the positive control arbutin (I[C.sub.50]=99.57 [micro]g/ml).
Similarly, biologists have found that arbutin found in blueberries and cranberries are especially effective as a diuretic as well as a source of antibiotic (Landon 1993).
Key ingredients include arbutin, a natural skin brightener proven to condition skin and promote an even skin tone; hexylresorcinol, which helps correct the appearance of hyperpigmentation and brighten skin in combination with topical exfoliants; and hexanoyl dipeptide-3, an exfoliating peptide that helps to shed damaged and pigmented skin.
PRP sessions were injected at monthly interval for two sessions in combination with monthly Q-switched Nd-YAG laser and topical alpha arbutin application.15
Arbutine/Deoxy arbutine: It is a HQ derived from blueberries and Phytolacca americana; 3% arbutin may provide de-pigmentation, but hyperpigmentation results from its use at high concentrations (21).
Lamiaceae species are known to contain a range of secondary metabolites, such as arbutin [22], tannins, flavonoids, sitosterol, phenolic glycosides, phenolic terpenoids [23], and numerous essential oil molecules [24].
To date, arbutin and kojic acid are the most commonly used tyrosinase inhibitors, which often serve as positive control drugs [5, 6].
A more recent study found that d-mannose in combination with other plant extracts, including arbutin, forskolin, berberine, and birch, was effective in reducing recurrent UTIs and could be an alternative to prophylactic antibiotic use or in fighting resistant bacterial infections [81].
Many natural and synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors have been reported such as ascorbic acid, arbutin, kojic acid, aromatic alcohols, azelaic acids, and aldehydes and polyphenol compounds such as resveratrol in recent years [41].
Certain phenolic glucosides, such as arbutin, serve as signals that induce production of syringomycin, a cyclic lipodepsinonapeptide toxin that causes necrotic symptoms in host plants.