(4-hydroxyphenyl-[beta]-D-glucopyranoside) is a phenolic glucoside that is found mainly in the Ericaceae and Saxifragaceae families.
In contrast, although N1 was ineffective against extracellular melanogenesis at the highest tested concentration (500 [micro]g/ml), a 50% inhibition was observed by sample N2 at a concentration of 47.83 [micro]g/ml, which was more effective compared to the positive control arbutin
Similarly, biologists have found that arbutin
found in blueberries and cranberries are especially effective as a diuretic as well as a source of antibiotic (Landon 1993).
Key ingredients include arbutin
, a natural skin brightener proven to condition skin and promote an even skin tone; hexylresorcinol, which helps correct the appearance of hyperpigmentation and brighten skin in combination with topical exfoliants; and hexanoyl dipeptide-3, an exfoliating peptide that helps to shed damaged and pigmented skin.
PRP sessions were injected at monthly interval for two sessions in combination with monthly Q-switched Nd-YAG laser and topical alpha arbutin
Arbutine/Deoxy arbutine: It is a HQ derived from blueberries and Phytolacca americana; 3% arbutin
may provide de-pigmentation, but hyperpigmentation results from its use at high concentrations (21).
Lamiaceae species are known to contain a range of secondary metabolites, such as arbutin
, tannins, flavonoids, sitosterol, phenolic glycosides, phenolic terpenoids , and numerous essential oil molecules .
To date, arbutin
and kojic acid are the most commonly used tyrosinase inhibitors, which often serve as positive control drugs [5, 6].
A more recent study found that d-mannose in combination with other plant extracts, including arbutin
, forskolin, berberine, and birch, was effective in reducing recurrent UTIs and could be an alternative to prophylactic antibiotic use or in fighting resistant bacterial infections .
Many natural and synthetic tyrosinase inhibitors have been reported such as ascorbic acid, arbutin
, kojic acid, aromatic alcohols, azelaic acids, and aldehydes and polyphenol compounds such as resveratrol in recent years .
Certain phenolic glucosides, such as arbutin
, serve as signals that induce production of syringomycin, a cyclic lipodepsinonapeptide toxin that causes necrotic symptoms in host plants.