It was claimed that heat input can be used as the independent variable for controlling the dimensions of the weld bead geometry and the weld with the same value of heat input has identical cooling time and identical microstructure of HAZ and hence HAZ properties for a given metal regardless of the values of welding current, arc voltage
and travel speed.
In RMS blocks, the current values of current and arc voltage
are continuously calculated in the simulation process by the formula [mathematical expression not reproducible].
A high tolerance plasma arc cutting system was used to cut plates of a 15 mm thick mild steel  and the arc voltage
and cutting speed, plasma gas flow rate, shield gas flow rate and shield gas mixture are included in the analysis and their effects on kerf position and shape are evaluated.
We were able to follow the movement of the arc anode attachment using high-speed camera movies and arc voltage
time evolution as well as by emission spectra.
14 it is shown that, real-time measured arc voltage
shows similarity with the arc voltage
obtained by flicker effect by using simulation, and this model can be used to define the arc voltage
The input parameters in subsequent range of arc voltage
(12-20V), welding speed (60-100mm/min) and welding current (60-100 A).
In contrast to the cylindrical nozzle, these CD-bell nozzles can gain lower arc voltage
fluctuations and acoustic levels and higher thermal and deposition efficiency, while there is no significant difference in porosity and adhesive strength.
In this case, an arc voltage
is added to the ohmic drops in the brush and the segment.
In order to discriminate between arcing and permanent faults, the proposed technique estimates the amplitude of arc voltage
by least error squares method through the measured synchronized harmonic phasors caused by the nonlinear arc behavior.
where U is arc voltage
(V), I is current (A), v is welding speed (mm/s) and k is thermal efficiency factor for the welding process (was used k = 0.8).
To correct this problem, reduce the welding current, decrease the welding arc voltage
and adjust the electrode angle as needed.