archetype


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archetype

(är`kĭtīp') [Gr. arch=first, typos=mold], term whose earlier meaning, "original model," or "prototype," has been enlarged by C. G. JungJung, Carl Gustav
, 1875–1961, Swiss psychiatrist, founder of analytical psychology. The son of a country pastor, he studied at Basel (1895–1900) and Zürich (M.D., 1902).
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 and by several contemporary literary critics. A Jungian archetype is a thought pattern that finds worldwide parallels, either in cultures (for example, the similarity of the ritual of Holy Communion in Europe with the tecqualo in ancient Mexico) or in individuals (a child's concept of a parent as both heroic and tyrannic, superman and ogre). Jung believed that such archetypal images and ideas reside in the unconscious level of the mind of every human being and are inherited from the ancestors of the race. They form the substance of the collective unconscious. Literary critics such as Northrop FryeFrye, Northrop
, 1912–91, Canadian literary critic, b. Quebec. In 1936 he was ordained as a minister in the United Church of Canada. In 1948 he was appointed professor of English at Victoria College, of which he was later principal (1959–66).
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 and Maud Bodkin use the term archetype interchangeably with the term motifmotif
, in literature, term that denotes the recurrent presence of certain character types, objects, settings, or situations in diverse genres and periods of folklore and literature.
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, emphasizing that the role of these elements in great works of literature is to unite readers with otherwise dispersed cultures and eras.

Archetype

 

concept of the original type, the prototype of the skeletal structure of all vertebrates, advanced by R. Owen (1847). The archetype theory is based on the comparison of traits common to the skeletons of various vertebrates, and it has created an abstract model, an ideal type of skeleton, which has not been completely realized by any animal, either extinct or living. This theory served as an expression of the natural philosophical school of morphology during the 18th and 19th centuries, when a reflection of general ideas was sought for in the structure of human beings and animals. Basic to the archetype is the ideal vertebrate system, consisting of eight parts (the body, the neural and hemal arches, the awned and transverse appendages, and the ribs). The entire skeleton is depicted as some kind of series of such modified vertebrae. In the skull Owen distinguished four vertebrae: the occipital, parietal, frontal, and nasal. C. Darwin reinterpreted the archetype theory; he conceived of it not as an abstract prototype but as an ancestral form which had actually existed at one time.

REFERENCES

Owen, R. Report on the Archetype and Homologies of the Vertebrate Skeleton: Report of the 16th Meeting . . . of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. . ., 1846. London, 1847.

B. S. MATVEEV

archetype

[′är·ki‚tīp]
(evolution)
A hypothetical ancestral type conceptualized by eliminating all specialized character traits.

archetype

1. Psychoanal one of the inherited mental images postulated by Jung as the content of the collective unconscious
2. a constantly recurring symbol or motif in literature, painting, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
We generally speak of a man's early relationship with his mother having an effect on his later relationships with women, and the women he is attracted to later in life are thought to embody qualities of his inner anima, or the contrasexual archetype in the unconscious.
Systems archetypes II: using systems archetypes to take effective action
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The substantial hero archetype (related to epithetic archetypes of light, tall and pure), have been completed and updated by different myths over time, like Hercules, among the ancient Greeks, Momotaro, among the 17th century Japanese, and Superman, throughout the world since the 20th century.
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Archetype found Emma in a confused, fragile state, searching for answers and then discovering that she is a clone.
but rather stand out films and performances true to the site's archetypes, e.
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This is one reason that Frye refers to an archetype as "an element in a work of literature, whether a character, an image, a narrative formula, or an idea, which can be assimilated to a larger unifying category" (202).
As regards the critical tools employed, Rensma maneuvers in the space between two critical perspectives: that of Robert Segal in his Joseph Campbell--an introduction (3) which Rensma contradicts, and that of psychiatrist and Jungian analyst Anthony Stevens in Archetype revisited--an updated natural history of the self (4) with which Resnma agrees.
The achiever is a heroic figure in American society, yet, as with any archetype, there is a good and bad side to achievement.