The Cairngorms are Britain's most extensive area of Arctic-alpine
landscape, with rounded granite peaks and valleys formed by glacial erosion.
Ben Lawers is regarded as a hugely significant place for botanists, renowned for its arctic-alpine
flora, many of which are rare and endangered.
This is a true arctic-alpine
tundra "tree" which stands a full 2cm tall when its catkins are fully expanded.
The mountain is renowned for its unusual array of Arctic-Alpine
In addition to seeing several Arctic-alpine
plant species the students also found several red clover plants (Trifolium pratense L).
Seed germination and vivipary from a latitudinal series of populations of the arctic-alpine
grass Trisetum spicatum.
A magnificent set of case studies follow, written by a glitterati of experts in their field, including British moorlands (Murray Grant & James Pearce-Higgins), European Arctic-Alpine
(Des Thompson et al.), reed beds and fens (Gillian Gilbert & Ken Smith), wet grassland waders (Malcolm Ausden & Mark Bolton), estuaries (Jenny Gill), non-estuarine coast (Niall Burton) and a hugely enjoyable review of woodlands (where Rob is on home territory and in superb form, along with his coauthors).
Because of historical processes, many arctic-alpine
species in Europe find their southern distribution limit in Bulgarian mountains (the Balkans and other) and are listed as threatened in the country.
The project was the vision of Dr Barbara Jones, the highlands ecologist in CCW at the time: its aim was to improve the state and condition of the mountain communities and species, especially the Arctic-Alpine
community, which is at its most southerly in Britain in Snowdonia.
Natural England manages 15 national nature reserves including those at Lindisfarne, Castle Eden Dene and Moor House, Upper Teesdale, which boasts rare Arctic-Alpine
lyelli by nearly 500 m and is the first collected in the Arctic-Alpine
Mesic, boreal and arctic-alpine
systems may be even more responsive to drought than semiarid areas because of the limited evolutionary experience.