Various commercially available preparations of areca nut
mixed with other substances are widely available, and the industry has grown to be worth several hundred million US dollars.1,19 Some of the chewing substances are commonly available and consumed in South Asia (Annexure).
Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, location of the lesion, h/o trauma, poor oral hygiene, h/o chewing of betel quid (Betel leaf, areca nut
, tobacco, slaked lime and catechu in various combination or all together).
In current study, 87.9% of OSCC patients chewed areca nuts
. Results of current study were in accordance with study of Akhtar et al who found similar association between paan chewing and OSCC in south Asian populations.9
Roles of keratinocyte inflammation in oral cancer: regulating the prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6 and TNF-[alpha] production of oral epithelial cells by areca nut
extract and arecoline.
The makers of Pan Bahar insist their product does not contain nicotine, but many other pan masala mixtures in India contain tobacco along with pastes, areca nut
OSMF was associated with areca nut
chewing either in the form of quid (21%) or as gutkha (68%) which is processed areca nut
The tobacco is sold as strands wrapped up with betal leaf, along with areca nut
and lime and is sucked or chewed.
Association Between Grading of Oral Submucous Fibrosis With Frequency and Consumption of Areca Nut
and Its Derivatives in a Wide Age Group: A Multi-centric Cross Sectional Study From Karachi, Pakistan.
It is a masticatory mixture containing various components, such as areca nut
(AN), slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), betel leaf, and locally varied flavorings .
Fan, "Effects of areca nut
on gastric motility in rats and its related mechanism," Shandong Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol.
of times used to search the title "Piper Betle" 1 Cancer 198 2 Squamous-Cell Carcinoma 192 3 Betel Quid 168 4 Areca Nut
143 5 Taiwan 131 6 Risk 127 7 Expression 119 8 Head 108 9 Prevalence 107 10 Smoking 105 11 Cancer 198 Table--10 Highly Productivity Authors S.No Authors No.
Pan masala - a preparation of betel leaf with areca nut
and sometimes with tobacco - is chewed for its stimulant and psychoactive effects.