This direct trauma to the oral mucosa by hard chewing of these substances and the effects of arecoline
plays a major role in pathogenesis of oral submucosal fibrosis.
excites the contraction of distal colonic smooth muscle strips in rats via the M3 receptor--Extracellular Ca2+ influx -Ca2+ store release pathway," Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol.
Although little is known about the disposition and metabolism of areca alkaloids (arecoline
and arecaidine) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) in humans, we conducted an accurate and sensitive technique to explore the exposure of toxic substances from BQ consumption .
Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay for determination of nicotine and metabolites, caffeine and arecoline
in breast milk.
 Nicotine and arecoline
present in tobacco and betel quid cause dyslipidemia and hypertension, resulting in CVD.
Among which arecoline
is the main causative agent which is responsible for fibroblast proliferation.
About 0.25 percent of all betel nuts are made up of arecoline
, the effects of which are similar to Nicotine, which produces a feeling of euphoria and acts as a stimulant.
It contains many alkaloids such as arecoline
, arecaidine, guvacine & guvacoline, of which arecoline
is the main agent.
These include arecoline
, arecaidine, guvacoline, guvacine, arecolidine, and choline (Chu, 2001; Farnsworth, 1976).
Huang, "Formulation optimization of arecoline
patches," The Scientific World Journal, vol.
It facilitates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the saliva of chewers and also facilitates the hydrolysis of arecoline
into arecaidine which in turn facilitates increased fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis, which are essential for premalignant and malignant transformation of the affected tissues .
Craig, "Screening for Echinococcus granulosus in dogs: comparison between arecoline
purgation, coproELISA and coproPCR with necropsy in pre-patent infections," Veterinary Parasitology, vol.