Fortunately, several interventions, such as physical activity, melatonin therapy, and bright light therapy, which have been proved to be potential approaches for restoring the circadian arhythmicity
, can be applied to the advanced PD patients.
These symptoms may occur simultaneously or during different disease periods, showing a sudden and rapid onset, purposelessness, stereotypy, and arhythmicity
. The prevalence of TS has increased within recent years and is estimated to be 0.05%-3%; a large-scale epidemiological survey of 420,312 children and adolescents reported it to be 1.0%.