ARM

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arm,

upper limb in humans. Three long bones form the framework of the arm: the humerus of the upper arm, and the radius (outer bone) and ulna (inner bone) of the forearm. The radius and ulna run parallel but meet at their ends in such a manner that the radius can rotate around the ulna. This arrangement permits turning the forearm to bring the hand palm up (supination) or palm down (pronation). The radius and ulna hinge with the bones of the hand at the wrist, and with the humerus at the elbow. The bicepsbiceps
, any muscle having two heads, or fixed ends of attachment, notably the biceps brachii at the front of the upper arm and the biceps femoris in the thigh. Originating in the shoulder area, the heads of the biceps merge partway down the arm to form a rounded mass of tissue
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 brachii, a muscle of the upper arm, bends the arm at the elbow; the tricepstriceps,
any muscle having three heads, or points of attachment, but especially the triceps brachii at the back of the upper arm. One head originates on the shoulder blade and two on the upper-arm bone, or humerus.
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 brachii straightens the arm. Movement of the arm across the chest and above the head is accomplished by the pectoral muscles of the chest and deltoid muscles of the shoulder, respectively. In an adult the arm is normally five sixths as long as the leg.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Arm

 

the upper extremity in man consisting of the shoulder, forearm, and hand (carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges of the fingers). The arm is a more developed grasping extremity in man than in man’s ancient ancestors, the Anthropomorphidae.

The transformation from Anthropomorphidae to man was largely promoted by freeing the anterior extremities, or arms, from locomotion and body-support functions and converting them into organs capable of performing work operations. As the arm became adapted to work, its structure substantially changed, becoming sharply distinct from the structure of the anterior extremity of Anthropomorphidae.

The most significant structural changes occurred in the hand. In Anthropomorphidae the hand has an underdeveloped thumb and the remaining fingers are greatly elongated; in contrast, the human hand is characterized by a powerfully developed thumb that is essential in performing all work operations. The remaining fingers of the human hand are significantly shorter than those of Anthropoidea but are nevertheless capable of the most delicate and differentiated movements.

In man’s development, the development of the arm as a work organ occurred simultaneously with the progressive development of the brain.

The body processes in brachiopods, the tentacles in cephalopods, and the mobile or nonmobile rays of echinoderms are sometimes called arms.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

arm

[ärm]
(anatomy)
The upper or superior limb in humans which comprises the upper arm with one bone and the forearm with two bones.
(control systems)
A robot component consiting of an interconnected set of links and powered joints that move and support the wrist socket and end effector.
(electricity)
(engineering acoustics)
(geology)
A ridge or a spur that extends from a mountain.
(mathematics)
A side of an angle.
(naval architecture)
The part of an anchor extending from the crown to one of the flukes.
(oceanography)
A long, narrow inlet of water extending from another body of water.
(ordnance)
A combat branch of a military force; specifically, a branch of the U.S. Army, such as the Infantry Armored Cavalry, the primary function of which is combat.
(Often plural) Weapons for use in war.
To supply with arms.
To ready ammunition for detonation, as by removal of safety devices or alignment of the explosive elements in the explosive train of the fuse.
(physics)
The perpendicular distance from the line along which a force is applied to a reference point.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

ARM

(processor)
Advanced RISC Machine.

Originally Acorn RISC Machine.

ARM

(company)
Advanced RISC Machines Ltd.

ARM

(publication)
["The Annotated C++ Reference Manual", Margaret A. Ellis and Bjarne Stroustrup, Addison-Wesley, 1990].

ARM

(hardware)
This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org)

ARM

The most widely used microprocessors worldwide. Designed by ARM Holdings plc, Cambridge, England (www.arm.com), the company was founded in 1990 by Acorn Computers, Apple and VLSI Technology. The ARM brand originally stood for Acorn RISC Machine and later Advanced RISC Machine.

In 2016, ARM was acquired by Japan-based Softbank, which agreed to sell the company to NVIDIA in 2020 for USD $40 billion, pending U.S. and U.K. approval.

ARM chips are 32-bit and 64-bit RISC-based CPUs that are known for their low cost and low power requirements (see RISC). Manufactured under license from ARM by more than a dozen semiconductor companies, billions of ARM-based devices are made every year, including smartphones, tablets, game consoles, e-book readers, netbooks, TVs and myriad other consumer and industrial products.

Very often, an ARM CPU is the processor in a system-on-chip (see SoC). For example, Qualcomm's Snapdragon and NVIDIA's Tegra are ARM-based smartphone and tablet SoCs.

Cortex, SecurCore and StrongARM
ARM processor families are designated by the prefix "ARM" and a digit, such as ARM7, ARM9 and ARM11 or with names such as Cortex and SecurCore, the latter used for secure identification products such as smart cards.

The StrongARM was a high-speed version of the ARM chip that was jointly developed with Digital Equipment Corporation. The SA-100, the first StrongARM chip, was delivered in 1995, and Intel acquired the technology from Digital in 1997. See Intel Mac, ARM Mac, StrongARM, Thumb and big.LITTLE.
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References in classic literature ?
They saw the barasingh standing over him, who fled when they came near, and they heard the langurs wailing in the branches, and Sona moaning up the hill; but their Bhagat was dead, sitting cross-legged, his back against a tree, his crutch under his armpit, and his face turned to the north-east.
'There now,' he said addressing himself no longer to the cook but the girdle, as he tucked the ends in at the waist, 'now you won't come undone!' And working his shoulders up and down to free his arms, he put the coat over his sheepskin, arched his back more strongly to ease his arms, poked himself under the armpits, and took down his leather-covered mittens from the shelf.
He sat in a little carriage, with a rug drawn closely across his chest and up to his armpits. His beautifully shaped hands were exposed, and his face; nothing else.
There was a raging blast beating in his face, and the thermometer stood below zero; the snow was never short of his knees, and in some of the drifts it was nearly up to his armpits. It would catch his feet and try to trip him; it would build itself into a wall before him to beat him back; and he would fling himself into it, plunging like a wounded buffalo, puffing and snorting in rage.
I popped out to my armpits and blowed the water out of my nose, and puffed a bit.
By far the most remarkable feature of this most remarkable creature, however, were the two tiny replicas of it, each about six inches in length, which dangled, one on either side, from its armpits. They were suspended by a small stem which seemed to grow from the exact tops of their heads to where it connected them with the body of the adult.
And so I raced on toward the trees intending to pass beneath that which held the man-things and take refuge in another farther on; but the wolf-dogs were very close behind me--so close that I had despaired of escaping them, when one of the creatures in the tree above swung down headforemost, his tail looped about a great limb, and grasping me beneath my armpits swung me in safety up among his fellows.
But they were silent in amazement and expectation when they saw the mighty white ape wriggle upon the back of their king, and, with steel muscles tensed beneath the armpits of his antagonist, bear down mightily with his open palms upon the back of the thick bullneck, so that the king ape could but shriek in agony and flounder helplessly about upon the thick mat of jungle grass.
With elbows braced back, hands clenched near his armpits, and chest protruded, he scudded along, while close at his heels lumbered a large-limbed, heavy, yellow mustached young man, who seemed to feel the exercise a good deal more than his senior.
Prescription or over-the-counter clinical strength antiperspirants are effective when applied at night to the armpits or hands, he said, and new prescription wipes can decrease armpit sweat in kids as young as age 9.
Place your left hand on top of your head, and then slowly and gently pull your nose toward your left armpit. Hold for five slow breaths, and then slowly release and return to the starting position.