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(är`nəkə), any plant of the genus Arnica, yellow-flowered perennials of the family Asteraceae (asteraster
[Gr.,=star], common name for the Asteraceae (Compositae), the aster family, in North America, name for plants of the genus Aster, sometimes called wild asters, and for a related plant more correctly called China aster (Callistephus chinensis
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 family), native to north temperate and arctic regions. In North America, arnicas grow in woody areas of the plains region and the Pacific coast, northward to arctic Alaska. Medicinal preparations for the treatment of wounds and bruises are sometimes made from arnica plants, chiefly A. montana of the European Alps. Arnica is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Asterales, family Asteraceae.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a genus of perennial herbs of the family Compositae.

There are more than 30 species of Arnica, most of which are found in North America. Some are found in Europe and Asia. In the USSR there are eight species. The best known is mountain tobacco (A. montana). It has a short, thick rhizome, is up to 60 cm high, and has a single involucrate head of yellow orange flowers. Mountain tobacco is found in Byelorussia, Lithuania, and the western Ukraine in forests and mountain meadows. As a rule, it grows in moist soils. In medicine an alcohol infusion made from the dried flower heads is used as a cholagogue and an antihemorrhagic (in uterine hemorrhaging). Mountain tobacco, A. foliosa, and A. chamissonis are cultivated as medicinal plants.


Atlas lekarstvennykh rastenii SSSR. Moscow, 1962.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Stefan Gafner, PhD, who is also technical director of the Botanical Adulterants Program, explained: "The occurrence of arnica adulteration with Heterotheca inuloides has been known for over half a century, and is readily detected by macroscopic, microscopic, chemical and/or DNA analysis.
However, there are also conflicting, non-promising results relative to the analgesic properties of Arnica (VICKERS et al., 1998; STEVINSON et al., 2003), which suggests the need to perform studies to demonstrate or rule out its efficacy in this regard, specifically in felines.
Still, research suggests that arnica gels and creams rubbed into the skin (but not on open wounds) may be as effective as ibuprofen as a pain reliever, though some allergic skin reactions have been reported.
Arnica gel or ointment works as well as ibuprofen and other NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs).
The pressure on natural sources of this plant is alleviated by a suitable use of arnica supply in the European region, where flower heads are harvested [25].
Popular but ineffective products and therapies included deer velvet, rescue remedy, arnica, propolis, magnets, shark cartilage, the lemon detox diet, and megadoses of vitamin C to treat cancer.
We have heard and experienced personally many more Arnica success stories than we have space to recount in this article, but we will recount a few.
Randomization was used to assign one topical agent (5% vitamin K, 1% vitamin K and 0 3% retinol, 20% arnica, or white petrolatum) to exactly one bruise per subject, which was then treated under occlusion twice a day for 2 weeks.
I spoke to Sean Welch, a senior assistant vice president in the claims division at Arnica Mutual, to find out how the insurer gets such high satisfaction ratings from its policyholders.
Researchers at Romania's University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Targu Mures, carried this study out to determine what effect, if any, Arnica 7C could bring to bear on mice suffering from trauma, when compared to placebo.
On a national level, the the state is working with Oregon berry growers and processors on a campaign that includes promotions with partners such as Costco, Safeway and Whole Foods and a cookbook partnership with Arnica Publishing and Creative Services of Portland.