arrhenotoky


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arrhenotoky

[‚a·rə′näd·ə·kē]
(biology)
Production of only male offspring by a parthenogenetic female.
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Because sex determination in ants involves arrhenotoky, the reproductive arrangements in M.
The evidential production by impaternata queens of two types of males representing those of its parental species is posited as a simple consequence of hybridization in the presence of arrhenotoky.
Other authors think that LMC species are highly inbred, and those with a rigid precise sex ratio will be at a selective advantage over those that allocate males at random; furthermore, wasps can use arrhenotoky to produce such a precise sex ratio (Green 1980, Waage 1982, Green et al.
Effects of Exposure to High Temperature on the Female Adult under Arrhenotoky Conditions
Under arrhenotoky conditions, the longevity of adult females of the parental generation exposed to 41[degrees]C was shortened significantly from 34.65 days in the control to 17.67 days after a 36 h heat shock ([F.sub.(5,12)] = 117.34, P = 0.0001) (Fig.
At 25[degrees]C (control) and after an exposure to 41[degrees]C for 2 h, the longevity of adult females under arrhenotoky was significantly longer than that under sexual reproduction (control: [F.sub.(1,4)] = 25.3, P < 0.01; 2 h exposure: [F.sub.(1,4)] = 7.74, P < 0.05).
With an increasing duration of exposure to 41[degrees]C, the numbers of larvae in the first progeny generation declined significantly compared with the control (arrhenotoky: [F.sub.(5,12)] = 116.70, P = 0.0001; sexual reproduction: [F.sub.(5,12)] = 38.64, P = 0.0001).
At the control temperature of 25[degrees]C ([F.sub.(1,4)] = 292.42, P < 0.01) and after exposure to 41[degrees]C for up to 12 h, the quantity of first progeny generation larvae was significantly higher under arrhenotoky than under sexual reproduction (2 h: [F.sub.(1,4)] = 35.15, P < 0.01; 6 h: [F.sub.(1,4)] = 38.31, P < 0.01; 12' h: [F.sub.(1,4)] = 49.72, P < 0.01).
Under the arrhenotoky condition, the numbers of adults in the first progeny generation were reduced from 2,483 in the control to 929 in the 36 h treatment, and the difference between treatments and the control was highly significant ([F.sub.(5,12)] = 160.26, P = 0.0001).
At 25[degrees]C and after exposure to 41[degrees]C for up to 12 h, the quantity of first progeny generation adults under arrhenotoky was significantly higher than that under sexual reproduction (25 [degrees]C: [F.sub.(1,4)] = 163.6, P < 0.01; 2 h: [F.sub.(1,4)] = 22.73, P < 0.01; 6 h: [F.sub.(1,4)] = 33.94, P < 0.01; 12 h: [F.sub.(1,4)] = 40.92, P < 0.01).
The haploid males are produced from unfertilized eggs, whereas the diploid females are produced from fertilized eggs (arrhenotoky) (Moritz 1997).
1), 3-6 mm in length, and females have a high reproductive rate (~220 eggs); the males are produced by parthenogenesis (arrhenotoky).