Total urinary arsenic concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry on an ELAN DRC II ICPMS or PerkinElmer ELAN 6100 DRC plus (PerkinElmer SCIEX, Concord, ON, Canada); arsenic species and metabolites (arsenous acid, arsenic acid
, MMA, DMA, arsenobetaine, and arsenocholine) were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Environmental Protection Agency Region 5 (R5) and the Children's Study (CS) in Minnesota were analyzed for total arsenic, arsenate [As(V)], arsenite, dimethyl arsenic acid
(DMA), monomethyl arsenic acid
(MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), and arsenocholine.