art history


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art history,

the study of works of art and architecture. In the mid-19th cent., art history was raised to the status of an academic discipline by the Swiss Jacob BurckhardtBurckhardt, Jacob or Jakob Christoph
, 1818–97, Swiss historian, one of the founders of the cultural interpretation of history. He studied under Ranke at the Univ.
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, who related art to its cultural environment, and the German idealists Alois Riegl, Heinrich WölfflinWölfflin, Heinrich
, 1864–1945, Swiss art historian. Wölfflin's formal stylistic analysis of motifs and composition in art combined cultural history and psychological insight into the creative process to form a complete aesthetic system.
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, and Wilhelm Worringer. The latter three saw art history as the analysis of forms and viewed art apart from any function it serves in expressing the spirit of its age. Major 20th-century art historians include Henri Focillon, Bernard BerensonBerenson, Bernard
, 1865–1959, American art critic and connoisseur of Italian art, b. Lithuania, grad. Harvard, 1887. An expert and an arbiter of taste, he selected for art collectors innumerable paintings, many of which are now in museums.
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, Aby Warburg, Émile MâleMâle, Émile
, 1862–1954, French art historian. Mâle pioneered the study of French art of the Middle Ages, its forms, and especially the Eastern sources of sculptural iconography of the cathedrals of France.
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, Erwin PanofskyPanofsky, Erwin
, 1892–1968, American art historian, b. Germany, Ph.D. Univ. of Freiburg, 1914. After teaching (1921–33) at the Univ. of Hamburg and serving as professor of fine arts at New York Univ.
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, and Ernst Gombrich; the succeeding generation has included Michael Fried, Rosalind Krauss, Donald Kuspit, and Giselda Pollack. Modern art history is a broad field of inquiry embracing formal questions of stylistic development as well as considerations of social and cultural context. Since the 1970s, a heightened awareness of gender, ethnicity, and environmental issues has marked the work of many art historians.

Bibliography

See A. Hauser, The Social History of Art (4 vol., 1958–60); M. Podro, The Critical Historians of Art (1982); E. H. Gombrich, The Story of Art (16th ed. 1995); P. J. E. Davies et al. Janson's History of Art (8th ed. 2010); H. Honour and J. Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History (rev. 7th ed. 2013).

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References in periodicals archive ?
But after freshman-year courses exposed him to art and art history, his interest turned into excitement and he went on to New York City internships at Metro Pictures art gallery and the Whitney Museum of American Art at Phillip Morris.
This is when we began to discuss the technical side of the lesson as students were once again looking closely at the art history reference they have selected and they color what they see.
Critique: Elegant, exquisite, erudite, scholarly, informative, profusely and beautifully illustrated, exceptionally well organized and presented, "The Renaissance Nude" is an especially and unreservedly recommended addition to personal, community, college, and university library European Art History collections in general, and Renaissance Art History supplemental studies lists in particular.
Therefore, with this in mind, the further question is how can art history and practices be taught in conflict areas, given the increasingly corporate university educational system that is being run.
The response from some art historians (myself included) to the challenge posed by market forces has been to focus on the simple fact that art history does not lead necessarily to only two career choices as a university lecturer or museum curator.
"At the moment we have a BA in Art History and offer courses in curation and art history.
Focillon was at Yale University teaching "an art history of the world in real time," lecturing on the churches of Spain at the height of the Spanish Civil War, or on Manet's painting in the fall of 1939 as the German army threatened France.
Johns told the publication that she appreciated the President's apology, but felt it was important for him to know that art history is no longer just the purview of 'the girls with pearls'.
The project focused on a visual exploration of art history since 2005, distilling more than 2,500 entries spanning galleries, exhibitions, fairs, artists, curators, patrons, biennials, and awards and institutions in Abu Dhabi, Dubai and Sharjah.
Mrazek, for example, compares television and art history as similar 'ways of seeing' that both undermine the meaning and value of Javanese wayang (puppet theatre).
Although WAJ's organization was responsive, peripatetic, and opportune, depending entirely on the inclination and interests of submitting scholars, names of survivors in need of recognition, and the ever mounting spate of publication of books and catalogues devoted to women, its role in the world of mainstream art history is large.
I first learned about art history in Paul Arnold's Introduction to Design class at Oberlin College almost a half century ago.

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