artefact


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artefact

, artifact
Cytology a structure seen in tissue after death, fixation, staining, etc., that is not normally present in the living tissue
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

artefact

or

artifact

any individual material object produced by a culture. The study of such objects is important in anthropology (see MATERIAL CULTURE). In ARCHAEOLOGY, the artefacts left behind by a society are the main means of reconstructing an account of that society.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000

artifact

(1) Any element in a software development project. It includes documentation, test plans, images, data files and executable modules.

(2) A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound often go undetected.

Analog Artifacts
In film, artifacts such as blotches, scratches and flicker are commonly found, especially in older movies. Imperfections in the camera lenses and silver-grain film itself can generate "noise," which appears as tiny background specks, making the image softer. The electronic recording of analog videotapes can introduce noise as well. See noise.

Digital Artifacts
Artifacts are a natural byproduct of digital compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, which permanently discard pixels. The greater the compression used, the more artifacts are likely, and fast motion sequences are a major contributor. As TV screens become larger, the distortions are more noticeable. In digital cameras, artifacts may arise when performing digital zoom. When analog material is converted to digital, tiny discrepancies (quantization errors) may result. See blocking artifacts, mosquito noise, feathering and quantization error.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Changes to the environment not only affect patterns of stone artefact discard; they can also underlie post-depositional processes that rearrange artefact distributions.
"This indicates that a large part of these tools were not conceived from the outset as double artefacts but a single tool was made first and a second was added later when the artefact was recycled," the researcher indicated.
A close examination of the artefact revealed it was not a genuine one, but an imitation of Pharaonic and Phoenician artefacts dated back to the first and second millennium BC.
We claim that technical artefacts have a dual nature: the function of a technical artefact is grounded on the one hand in its physical structure and on the other hand in a context of intentional human action (see also Kroes, 2002).
infrequent) type of object increases as the size of the sample increases, but a very large sample may sometimes be required before all varieties of artefact are represented.
At a certain stage this allows him to define an artefact as 'an intentionally modified tool whose modified properties were intended by the agent to be recognized by an agent at a later time as having been intentionally altered for that, or some other, use' (29-30).
It will be presented in three main sections: The first will depict archaeologists' discovery of a find, and how the artefact is cleaned, processed, and carefully prepared for transport from the excavation site.
Because of unclear distinctions and the subjective nature of previous typological classifications, Hiscock and Attenbrow (1998, 2002) advocate the general term 'backed artefact' for the class of backed objects.
In this report we present a revised chronological sequence of backed artefact production rates from Capertee 3, a rockshelter immediately west of Sydney in the headwaters of the Hawkesbury River drainage basin.
Takeo authorities said on Monday that the province's residents were the main source of artefacts and statues received by its museums.
The oldest artefact from Pakistan is the "Aterracotta female human figurine"A which is estimated to be 5,000 years old.
The curator, Kwara office of National Commission for Museums and Monuments, Mrs Bimpe Oladele has called on the public to bring any artefact or report strange discoveries on sites to the Commission.