artefact

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artefact

, artifact
Cytology a structure seen in tissue after death, fixation, staining, etc., that is not normally present in the living tissue
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

artefact

or

artifact

any individual material object produced by a culture. The study of such objects is important in anthropology (see MATERIAL CULTURE). In ARCHAEOLOGY, the artefacts left behind by a society are the main means of reconstructing an account of that society.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000

artifact

(1) Any element in a software development project. It includes documentation, test plans, images, data files and executable modules.

(2) A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound often go undetected.

Analog Artifacts
In film, artifacts such as blotches, scratches and flicker are commonly found, especially in older movies. Imperfections in the camera lenses and silver-grain film itself can generate "noise," which appears as tiny background specks, making the image softer. The electronic recording of analog videotapes can introduce noise as well. See noise.

Digital Artifacts
Artifacts are a natural byproduct of digital compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, which permanently discard pixels. The greater the compression used, the more artifacts are likely, and fast motion sequences are a major contributor. As TV screens become larger, the distortions are more noticeable. In digital cameras, artifacts may arise when performing digital zoom. When analog material is converted to digital, tiny discrepancies (quantization errors) may result. See blocking artifacts, mosquito noise, feathering and quantization error.
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References in periodicals archive ?
(95) With such categories and distinctions, Rheinberger sets out to formulate a specific history of the interfaces of experimental systems, drawing attention to the highly artefactual character of specimens, which need to be prepared and made compatible to specific technological objects before they can take up their position at the interface.
The finds of artefactual assemblages--mainly pottery and metal artefacts-- along with abundant botanic remains of broad bean (Vicia faba var.
madera petrificada, rocas volcanicas) utilizadas como materia prima para la manufactura artefactual. No obstante, hasta la actualidad no se han realizado investigaciones arqueologicas sistematicas (con excepcion de las sintetizadas en el parrafo anterior) que permitan evaluar en que medida las poblaciones del pasado utilizaron dichos recursos.
In vivo studies have not demonstrated this effect by iodixanol in blood calcium measurements, thus indicating an artefactual in vitro effect [39, 41].
Red arrows indicate the nonabsorbable thread which, upon section by the microtome, creates an artefactual void on the tissue section (asterisk); (b) quantification of (a) suture bundle bioresorption.
Additionally, immunohistochemistry may allow the important differentiation of artefactual contraction bands generated during specimen handling.
Although DNA is more stable than RNA, the quality of DNA extracted from FFPE specimens can be considerably compromised by artefactual nucleotide changes introduced by formalin-fixation.
It is important to point out that shape anomalies may also occur in vitro (artefactual causes).