(a) Effect of ND-1 on arteriovenous shunt
thrombosis in rats.
Table 3 Cutaneous manifestations due to arteriovenous shunt
have reported the incidence of fungal infection in patients undergoing hemodialysis to be 67%.7 Cutaneous complications originating due to arteriovenous shunt
include infection, phlebitis and hematoma.8,12,13 However, arteriovenous shunt
dermatitis (both irritant and allergic) may also develop.7,12 Vascular complications of arteriovenous fistula construction include digital ischemia and aneurysm formation.6,7,8 Gynecomastia is the finding noted especially in cases who are on hemodialysis and may be reversed by a low phosphorus diet and
Chorioangioma can provide arteriovenous shunt
that can lead to fetal cardiomegaly and fetal heart failure.
Hemangioma or cavernoma often cause confusion in diagnosis especially in early stages, which unlike AVM are well-demarcated and do not have arteriovenous shunts
.11 AVMs show flow void signs on MRI due to the rapid flow in the lesions.8 The diagnosis of AVM in the present case was made by contrast enhanced CT and MRI brain and the feeding vessels viz., superficial temporal artery, internal maxillary and middle meningeal arteries were demonstrated by MRI neck angiography.
Interestingly, many authors presumed the presence of spontaneous portovenous shunt, such as gastrosplenorenal shunt or anomalous arteriovenous shunts
, as a culprit for distant embolization.
During hospitalization, the patient presented several episodes of epistaxis, and deterioration of cardiopulmonary function with higher oxygen requirements secondary to pulmonary arteriovenous shunts
. Gastrointestinal, liver or central nervous system shunts were discarded.
created for hemodialysis have been identified as cause of unexplained PH in patients with end-stage renal disease.
Raynaud's phenomenon is an abnormal vasospasm of digital arteries, precapillary arterioles, and dermal arteriovenous shunts
that occurs in response to cold and various other stimuli.
Four types have been defined: the Stewart-Blue-farb type accompanying chronic arteriovenous malformations, the Mali type accompanying stasis dermatitis, a type accompanying the first gestation, and a type accompanying arteriovenous shunts
in patients with chronic kidney failure (3).
Bilateral subcortical and basal ganglia calcification has been rarely reported in literature to be associated with dural areteriovenous fistula (AVF).3,4 Dural AVFs are abnormal arteriovenous connections that are located within the dura mater and involve a dural sinus and/or cortical veins and constitute 10-15% of all intracranial arteriovenous shunts
. The dural AVF have been found to be associated with chronic venous reflux which has been postulated to result in subcortical calcifications.5 A case of characteristic calcification in the cortico-medullary junction at the bottom of cerebral sulci and basal ganglia in a patient with both AVM and dural AVF is reported.
in free vascularized tissue transfer for extremity reconstruction.