was assumed to degenerate due to excessive tissue stresses, leading to collagen fibril degeneration, or excessive deformations, causing proteoglycan loss.
Usual treatment for osteoarthritis includes the use of corticosteroids, such as triamcinolone acetonide (TA), which have been associated with beneficial effects on articular cartilage
. For instance, SANDLER et al.
On the basis of morphology of chondrocytes and matrix, articular cartilage
structure can be divided into three zones; superficial (tangential), middle (transitional) and deep zone.
has no blood supply and therefore tends to heal slowly and imperfectly.
Small-FOV images with fluid-sensitive sequences (proton density [PD] or T2-weighted with fat suppression) provide the best evaluation of the acetabular labrum and articular cartilage
on non-arthrographic examinations.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee has become the most commonly performed musculoskeletal MRI examination, and is a valuable tool for evaluating the presence of joint effusion and meniscal signal changes, confirming articular cartilage
lesions, examining bone marrow edema (BME), and diagnosing ligamentous injuries.,,, Moreover, the high-field-strength 3.0-T MRI can create images of anatomical and pathological structures with higher spatial resolution and thinner section thickness than a 1.5-T MRI without increasing acquisition time or sacrificing signal-to-noise ratio. Studies have shown that 3.0-T MRI is more sensitive and specific than 1.5-T MRI for the evaluation of cartilage changes, meniscal signal changes, and ligament tears.,
Specimens from the articular cartilage
of the knee joints were fixed in 10 % neutral buffered formalin and then prepared using standard procedures for Hematoxylin and Eosin staining.
Morphological features of articular cartilage
can be evaluated accurately through MRI sequences specific to the cartilage.
[3-5] Although exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, aerobic capacity and endurance, and helps in weight reduction, there are still ongoing debates about the effects of exercise on the articular cartilage
. [6,7] Exercise may have a direct effect on the articular cartilage
and an indirect effect through actions on muscles.
Introduction to Articular Cartilage
. Articular cartilage
is a thin layer that covers joint surfaces.
is tissue located between bones, which can withstand compressive and shear forces several times that of human body weight for years due to its low friction and high load bearing capacity [5, 6], attributed to the unique composition of its ECM .
The regeneration capability of articular cartilage
is limited due to the lack of blood vessels and nerve supply .