artifact


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artefact

, artifact
Cytology a structure seen in tissue after death, fixation, staining, etc., that is not normally present in the living tissue

Artifact

Individual product of human manufacture, such as cutlery, glassware, pottery, textiles, tools, and weapons.

artefact

or

artifact

any individual material object produced by a culture. The study of such objects is important in anthropology (see MATERIAL CULTURE). In ARCHAEOLOGY, the artefacts left behind by a society are the main means of reconstructing an account of that society.

artifact

[′ärd·ə‚fakt]
(archeology)
Any crafted object of common use that reflects the skills of humans in past cultures.
(communications)
Any component of a signal that is extraneous to the variable represented by the signal.
(histology)
A structure in a fixed cell or tissue formed by manipulation or by the reagent.
(medicine)
Noise or spurious signals that occur during various radiological imaging techniques; can reach a level where they appear in the image with as much strength as the signals produced by real objects.

building artifact

An element in a building which demonstrates human workmanship, such as a stained-glass window.

artifact

(1) Any element in a software development project. It includes documentation, test plans, images, data files and executable modules.

(2) A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound often go undetected.

Analog Artifacts
In film, artifacts such as blotches, scratches and flicker are commonly found, especially in older movies. Imperfections in the camera lenses and silver-grain film itself can generate "noise," which appears as tiny background specks, making the image softer. The electronic recording of analog videotapes can introduce noise as well. See noise.

Digital Artifacts
Artifacts are a natural byproduct of digital compression methods such as JPEG and MPEG, which permanently discard pixels. The greater the compression used, the more artifacts are likely, and fast motion sequences are a major contributor. As TV screens become larger, the distortions are more noticeable. In digital cameras, artifacts may arise when performing digital zoom. When analog material is converted to digital, tiny discrepancies (quantization errors) may result. See blocking artifacts, mosquito noise, feathering and quantization error.
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, DSR combines a focus on the design and development of Information Technology (IT) artifact with high priority on relevance in the application domain.
Cautery artifact has been previously defined as distorted tissue with swelling and homogenation of connective tissue fibers, vacuolization, and blurring of nuclei.
To reduce the blocking artifact, LF components are smoothened in the adjacent LF blocks and invalid HF components are discarded.
As well as making this ambitious high-end interactive content possible, Artifact works alongside a CMS so that agencies and businesses can create their own template driven content.
Muscarella, 82, who excavated in Iran in the 1960s, estimated that the artifact was not more than 14 years old.
One explained, "When I first received my artifact I thought it was horrible and that I had to go to special collections to see it.
Syrian Minister Naasan Agha announced that Syria possesses folkloric items and Iraqi traditional handicrafts that may belong to Iraqi museums, and that the authorities are working to catalog them in order to return them to Iraqi authorities, urging other countries to follow Syria's example and return stolen and smuggled Iraqi archaeological artifacts to their rightful owners.
Electrocardiographic artifacts that mimic ventricular arrhythmias may result in which of the following?
Under conditions of low artifact density, total collection may be viable or even essential, but in the generally artifact-rich eastern Corinthia, it is not a feasible option.
A close companion to artifact photography also covered in the museum's digitization plan is the scanning and recording of the military police branch still photograph collections at both the museum and the historian's office.
The measured causation is assumed to be due to "naturally" occurring interactions between people and technological artifact.
Accordingly, we propose the notion of coordination artifact as a unifying abstraction for engineering environment-based coordination of agents.